ENGLISH-TURKISH GLOSSARY OF LOBBYING
& ADVOCACY TERMS
(This glossary is currently being reviewed and updated)
Click here for TURKISH /
Click here for underlined terms in English
B C D
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- Ad: Advertisement.
- Academic integrity: A principle guiding institutions of higher
learning who are dedicated to the pursuit of truth.
- ACLU: American Civil Liberties Union. A public interest group devoted
primarily to the defense of civil rights and liberties granted by the U.S.
Constitution (i.e., the ACLU supports the separation of church and state,
and opposes prayer in schools).
- Act: A bill that has been passed by a legislature (ex: U.S. Congress)
and signed by an executive (ex: the President).
- Activist: A self-motivated person who is strongly committed to a cause,
or political party, and takes vigorous action on its behalf. Activists are often the
core of many organizations and are the members who are best informed
concerning the activities of the organization, and have the greatest
expectations. Grassroots activism is a pillar of civil society and
a means for lobbies to advance their interests. Related term: citizen
- Administration: The U.S. president, his cabinet, and other political
appointees. Can also mean the process of managing agencies, departments
and other organizations.
- Advertising: The use of advertisements and advertising
creates publicity. An effective tool of lobbyists. Announcements, short
films, brochures, and other methods employed in the media are used by advertising
agencies for PR and to make political issues publicly known. Advertising agencies can also
undertake market research on behalf of clients.
- Advertising agency: These agencies provide advertisers
with a wide range of communications services such as copywriting, art,
production, market research, media planning and buying, public relations,
and sales promotion. Although advertising and PR are two different
disciplines, many ad agencies promote themselves as "marketing
communications" firms who provide both public relations and advertising
services (note: while advertising agencies pay the media to present their
message, PR firms do not pay for coverage in the media since PR firms
rely on a greater number of communication tools).
- Advocacy: The act of arguing in favor of a particular
point of view, or action. Advocacy means being a voice on issues that
matter to people. Lobbying is sometimes defined as advocacy of a
point of view, either by groups or individuals.
- Advocacy group: An organization arguing in favor
of a particular political agenda or point of view.
- Advocate: Someone who gives active support and who argues in
favor of a particular cause, course of action, or set of beliefs.
- Affirmative action: Practices to remedy the effects of past
discrimination against minority groups by granting special benefits to members of the groups which
suffered. There are many programs and quotas for hiring African-Americans, women,
- African-American: People of African decent in the U.S. who are also
- Agenda: A political or ideological set of goals or objectives; a
political program. Also a list of topics for discussion.
- Alien: For immigration purposes, you are an alien if you are not a
- Allegation: An assertion or statement yet to be proved (such as
the so-called Armenian genocide, which can also be referred to as the alleged
- Allege: To affirm without necessarily being able to prove.
Alleged, or a allegedly.
- Ally: To unite in an alliance. Allies, allied.
- Amendment: A change or addition to a bill, or formal document, which
is under consideration by a legislature (constitutional amendments, such
as the Bill of Rights, have been made to the U.S. Constitution). In
the U.S., lobbying is an activity protected by the First Amendment of the
Constitution, which is the right to "petition the government for
redress of grievances."
- American Indian: A member of any of the indigenous peoples of
North, Central, or South America.
- Anti-defamation: To counter and prevent an attack to a
person's (group or organization) good name or reputation. To fight libel
- Anti-Semitic: Generally defined as anti-Jewish (although not
all Semitic people are Jewish). Anti-Semitism in political terms is the
discrimination against or persecution of Jews.
- Apportionment: A computation of the number of legislators that will
serve a given number of citizens. The U.S. Constitution requires that each
state have two senators and a number of representatives based on
population. The House of Representatives was fixed at 435 seats by
Congress in 1929.
- Argument(s): A series of ideas, each one supported by
materials, used to advance a particular position about an issue. A stated
position, with support for, or against an idea or issue. An argument is a
set of statements that allows you to develop your evidence in order to
establish the validity of your claim. An argument usually
begins with a premise or claim, leads to evidence, and comes to a
- Assemblée Nationale: Legislative
power in the Republic of France is vested in the Assemblée
Nationale, along with the Senate.
- Assertion: A claim that one advances with an insistence that it
- Assimilation: To become absorbed, to adjust, or become similar.
- Attitude: Sentiments, beliefs, positions held such as political
attitudes. The way a person views something, or tends to behave towards
it, often in an evaluative way, or with a positive or negative feeling.
- Asylum: Temporary or permanent refuge granted by a state, on its
territory, to a person seeking sanctuary from the jurisdiction of another
state. Temporary asylum is based on the U.N.-sanctioned legal principle of
"non-refoulement," which prohibits a state from expelling asylum seekers
back to their countries of origin, where their life or freedom may be
endangered, while their applications for permanent asylum are pending.
Asylum seekers are entitled to full protections of their basic human rights
as spelled out in international conventions.
- Backlash: A negative response to new political or social developments
(such as the reaction of whites to affirmative action and the integration
of blacks and whites at school).
- Ballot: Ballots are votes cast in an election. A printed list of political candidates.
- Bequest: Donation given in a will.
- Bias: Unreasoned distortion of judgment or prejudice about a
- Biased: A source whose opinion is so self-serving or slanted
that it may not be fair or objective.
- Bicameral: Legislative bodies that are composed of two chambers.
- Bigot (bigotry): A person who is intolerant of the beliefs of others,
particularly those of minority groups. Many ethnic groups
- Bill: Proposed legislation. A bill which is passed by the U.S. Congress becomes a law when
signed by the president.
- Bill of Rights: The first 10 amendments to the U.S.
Constitution (the 10 amendments were ratified in 1791, with others added at later dates).
Many constitutions have bills of rights protecting certain vital civil
liberties. One of the most inspirational bills of rights is the 1789
French "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen."
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- Bipartisan: Agreement on policies between the two major parties in the
U.S. (Republicans and Democrats).
- Brainstorming: The process of generating ideas while thinking creatively and
imaginatively and not being critical of what is produced.
- Budget: A financial plan about future expenses, operations, and income.
- Bundestag: The lower house in Germany. Legislative power in the Federal Republic of Germany is
vested in the Federal Assembly, along with the Bundesrat (Federal
- Bureaucracy, bureaucrats: The administrative departments of
government. Also refers to formal inefficient complex administrative
procedures, known as "red tape," which makes it difficult to take
action in response to problems and issues.
- Cabinet: In the U.S. the cabinet consists of the heads of the
executive departments who are appointed by the president.
- Call to action: Request that an audience engage in some clearly
- Campaign, campaigning: A series of coordinated activities designed to
achieve a political goal. Candidates run in congressional, senatorial, and
presidential campaigns. They can also be divided into local, state, and
congressional campaigns. Click here to
see contribution limits
- Campaign committee: A fund-raising organization created mainly to win
elections. Committee are also created in the name of individual
- Campaign finance reform: The changes that American political campaigns
have undergone, or are undergoing due to campaign finance laws. Since the
reforms of the 1970's regulation of campaign finance is still being
debating. The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, along with
numerous amendments, set new contribution and spending limits, made
provisions such as for government/public funding of presidential
campaigns, and required reports of contributions and expenditures to be
filed with the Federal Election Commission.
- Candidate: A person running for political office and seeking election. Also referred to as a delegate, for example in a primary,
or contestant in a race.
- Canvass: To determine the feelings and opinions of people (such
as voters before an election) especially by conducting a survey. To
canvass can also mean to solicit and request advertising, orders, votes,
etc, usually from a geographic location.
- Capitol Hill: The seat of the U.S. government which is the
number one target of lobbyists. Capitol Hill consists of the House of
Representatives and the Senate.
- Caucus (congressional): Association of members of Congress
based on party, ideology, interest, or demographic characteristics such as
race, gender and ethnicity. A caucus can also be described as an informal
issues group which promotes a particular policy or
interest (which can be based on common positions, businesses, industries,
political affiliation, ethnicity, etc.). Some of the most influential in Congress are the Greek caucus, Armenian caucus,
Congressional Black Caucus, Caucus on Women's Issues and Congressional Hispanic
Caucus. The Turkish caucus is quite new and only emerged after
- Caucus (political): A forum of a political or legislative group
to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions on legislative
matters. Contemporary party caucuses are local party meetings in which
citizens discuss and then vote for delegates to district and party
conventions. Prior to a presidential election some states hold
caucuses rather than primaries in order to endorse candidates.
- Cause: A cause can be considered a motive, a justification, or grounds
for enthusiastic commitment to some form of action.
- Censorship: Censorship is the control of what can be said,
written, or published in any way, and is an attempt to impose conformity
on views and behavior. It can be described as a policy or program of suppressing or eliminating
what is thought to be unacceptable and not serving the interests of those
who have the ability to use censorship. Censorship conflicts with the most
vital values of democracy, such as freedoms of speech and the press. In many countries the press is a
target of censorship, especially at a time of war, unrest, social strife,
or conflict. Censorship is also a means of shaping public opinion. In open
societies, where information is not usually subject to censorship, the use
of the mass media to convey political demands serves as a means of
communication with decision-makers. In the area of national security, all
countries retain powers of censorship (i.e. the British Official Secrets
Act) but such powers are not often used other than in times of war or
national emergency. Due to the requirement for military
secrecy, restrictions have been placed on "imbedded" journalists covering
the Iraq war. In support of freedom of information, and the public's right
to know, the media seeks fewer restrictions. Censorship may also be used
to prevent the dissemination of extreme views such as racial hatred, to
protect rights to privacy, and in the fight against child pornography.
- Census: An official periodic count of a population, including
information as sex, age, occupation, etc.
- Centrist: A person holding moderate political views. Centrism is a
noncommittal stance in politics.
- Charity: The giving of help, money, food, etc., to those in
need. An institution or organization set up to provide assistance to those
- Citizen: A native registered or naturalized member of a state, nation,
or other political community. Citizenry refers to citizens collectively.
- Citizens' groups: These groups are similar to lobbies
because they function as a pressure group. They seek to secure political
objectives which are in the interests of people other than themselves.
Citizens' groups often attempt to help society as a whole, acting as advocates on
behalf of the public and as watchdogs. These associations are sometimes called
"promotional groups" based around an idea or sometimes a single issue,
with no occupational basis of membership.
- Civics: The study of the roles, rights, responsibilities
of citizenship and government. Citizenship education.
- Civil disobedience: Nonviolent civil disobedience takes place
when activists protest peacefully against laws they believe are unjust.
Activists are usually willing to accept arrest as a means of demonstrating
the justice of their cause.
- Civil liberties: The freedoms of speech, press, association, and
religion. In many countries these liberties cannot be infringed upon by the government
except if justified by a compelling public interest. Civil liberty is the
right of an individual to certain freedoms of speech and action.
- Civil rights: The rights of the citizen (such as the right to vote or
right to a trial) that the government is required to protect. The personal
rights of the individual citizen, in most countries upheld by law.
- Civil service: The service responsible for the public administration
of the government of a country. It is the body of people employed by the
state to implement policy and apply the laws and regulations made by the
executive and legislature. Members of the civil service are appointed
rather than elected, are supposed to be non-partisan and have no political allegiance, and are not generally affected by changes of
- Civil society (civil society institutions): Autonomous
institutions representing organized groups that are voluntarily organized
by society, which come together to advance their common interests through
collective action. Refers to the totality of civic and social
organizations, or the network of institutions, that operate independently
from government or the state, which advocate and take action primarily for
social development and public interest. Some definitions include
businesses and social movements. Civil society can be organized at the
local, national or international level. The growing interest in civil
society has become a global trend. Since the 1990's, civil society has
emerged in countries where communism collapsed. The development of civil
society, and expression of divergent interests of NGO's, is coming to be
seen as a significant criterion of the development of democracy. Civil
society is made up of civic groups such as NGO's, private voluntary
organizations, citizens' groups, non-profit organizations, community-based organizations,
trade unions, civic clubs, charities, humanitarian
and disaster relief organizations, social and
sports clubs, cultural and religious groups, environmental groups,
ideological groups, professional associations, academia, educational
bodies, parents and teachers associations, policy institutions, lobbies,
the media, consumer organizations, senior citizens' groups, issue-based
activist groups, and organized local communities. The UN and EU are giving
civil society institutions a voice at the policy-making tables around the
world. As Cold War ideological paradigms dissolve, we are witnessing an
expansion of civil society from national to global civil society.
Centre for Civil Society definition: Civil society refers to the arena of
uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values.
In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state,
family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil
society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated.
Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and
institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and
power. Civil societies are often populated by organizations such as
registered charities, development non-governmental organizations,
community groups, women's organizations, faith-based organizations,
professional associations, trades unions, self-help groups, social
movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy group.
- Civility: Concern and care for others, the thoughtful use of
words and language, and the flexibility to see different sides of an
- Claim: Assertion that must be proved.
- Clash of civilizations: An article written by Prof. Samuel
Huntington and published in 1993 in Foreign Affairs arguing that
the central and most dangerous dimension of the emerging global politics
would be conflict between groups of differing civilizations. In
Huntington's book published in 1997, a second important theme was added:
"...an international order based on civilizations is the surest safeguard
against world war." Some analysts of global affairs believe that World War
III is soon to begin, and wonder what will be the role of Turkey. Others
do not foresee any clash of civilizations, but some see a desire to ignite
a war of religion (by viewing Islam as hostile to the West, or by arguing
the West is hostile to Islam).
- Client: In a lobbying context, the organization or the person
hiring a professional lobbyist.
- Coalition: A collection of separate political components, often
within Congress. Such an alliance of diverse interest groups or political
factions may not be long-lasting. The process of gathering such groups is
called "coalition building" and is a strategy used by lobbies.
- Code of ethics: The culture of an organization is determined by
the collective and individual acts of each person. The values, fairness,
and ethical conduct of organizations, lobbies, institutions, and people
(which in an NGO will determine the success of that organization, since members, volunteers, staff and the
community must be able to place their trust in it). Codes of ethics and
legislation that regulate lobbying in the U.S. Congress and EU
institutions are being debated in 2006, along with reforms, and new
regulations for lobbyists.
- Co-decision procedure: A procedure introduced by the Maastricht
Treaty to reinforce the role of the European Parliament in the legislative
process (the Treaty entered into force in 1993).
- Committee: A subdivision of Congress that deliberates and then reports
to the full chamber that the committee belongs to. They can also be
divided into subcommittees that hold hearings and investigate proposed
legislation before they are recommended. In an election contest, both the Republicans and
Democrats have committees whose main purpose is to ensure the party's
candidates are successful in elections.
- Common good: The term describes a goal or an object of policy
that is in the interests of everyone in a society. It is related to terms
such as "public interest" and "general will."
- Common ground: Similarities, shared interests, and mutual
- Communications: To impart knowledge, exchange information and ideas.
Different techniques and methods are used by communications experts.
- Community: The people living in one locality. Also refers to a group
of people having cultural, religious, ethnic, or other characteristics in
common. Can also mean the public in general, society.
- Community relations: Planned activity with a community that
highlights the interests of the community, and perhaps the interests of an
organizer or PR firm.
- Concurrent resolution: A resolution used to express the
feelings of the U.S. House and Senate, which have no law making authority
(these resolutions are designated H.Con.Res. or S.Con.Res.).
- Congress: The legislature of the U.S. Bicameral federal legislative power in the United States of America is vested
in the Senate (with 100 Senators, two from each of the 50 states) and the
House of Representatives (with 435 representatives apportioned according
to population). Members of the Senate are elected for 6-year teams, while
members of the House are selected for 2-year terms. Although all these representatives are members of
Congress, it is customary to refer only to members of the House as
Congressmen or Congresswomen, while members of the Senate are referred to
as Senators. In general terms, a congress is a meeting of representatives
of officials for debate and discussion. Click
here for more information
- Congressional district: An electoral division of a U.S. state entitled
to send one member to the House of Representatives.
- Congressional hearings: Formal, judicial-like proceedings conducted by
administrative agencies and congressional committees to gain information
pertaining to individual cases or broader public issues.
- Congressional record: The government journal that publishes all
proceedings of Congress. While Congress is in session it is published daily. It includes floor debates and the remarks of
- Congressman/Congresswoman: A member of Congress, especially the
House of Representatives. Members of the House are elected for 2-year
terms, while members of the Senate are elected for 6-year terms.
- Constituents: Members of the district from which an
official is elected. The people served by a representative or senator.
- Constituency: A legislative district or the residents of such a
district. The elected public official is in pubic office as a result of
the support, financial backing, and votes of his or her constituency.
- Constitution: Any written or unwritten framework of government that
has the force of fundamental law.
Click here for U.S. Constitution
Click here for European Union
- Consulting: Consulting is done by a "consultant" who is
a specialist that gives expert advice and information. The consultant acts in an
advisory capacity on professional matters. In addition to management
consulting, the proliferation of political consulting
firms demonstrates the increasing professionalization of electoral
politics. One controversial issue is that these profit-making firms may
have no base or interest in the candidate's constituency or home district,
and often take the place of established party organizations and
traditional volunteer campaign staff.
- Contribution: To give support (money, ideas, etc) for a common purpose
or fund. People who give money are known as "donors" or "contributors."
Individuals and most organizations in the U.S. are restricted in the
amount of money they can give directly to a candidate in one year. To see
the contribution limits of a person per election to a candidate for federal office,
the national political party committees, PAC's, or to a
campaign committee click here.
- Controversy: Dispute, argument, or debate, especially one concerning a
matter about which there is strong disagreement, and especially one
carried on in public or in the press.
- Convention: National nominating conventions are the most important
conventions held in the U.S. During these partisan gatherings the party
faithful present their agenda and nominate leaders which will seek to win
- Corporate contributions: Since the early 1900's corporations
have poured millions of dollars into campaigns. Campaign finance laws have
sought to regulate the contributions made by corporations.
- Copyright law: Copyright is the protection of creative work
from unauthorized use. In the case of "Work for hire," the work that is
produced by a writer, photographer or artist, will be owned by the company
(which has a contract for the work for hire).
- Council of Europe: An intergovernmental consultative
organization with 45 countries representing 780 million people (based in
Strasbourg, founded in 1949). Much of its work is concerned with human
rights, education, culture, cooperation, and reform in eastern and central
Europe. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg is an organ
of the Council of Europe, and is concerned only with cases brought under
the European Convention on Human Rights (the Council of Europe has no
power to make laws, and it is not an institution of the EU). Turkey became
a member in 1949.
- Counterarguments: Arguments against the speaker's own position.
- County: Any of the administrative subdivisions of certain states.
- Credibility: The extent to which a speaker, organization, etc,
is believed to be competent and trustworthy.
- Cultural sensitivity: A conscious attempt to be aware of and
acknowledge beliefs, norms, and traditions that differ from one's own.
- Debate: A discussion where opposing arguments are put forward. A formal discussion of skill and reasoned argument in which opposing arguments are put
forward by debaters.
- Debatable: In dispute. Open to question.
- Decision-making: The act of making a judgment, conclusion, or
- Declaration of Independence: The proclamation of the
independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state. The U.S.
Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia by
the thirteen U.S. colonies.
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- Defamation: Defamation is any false statement about a
person or people (or organization) that creates public hatred, contempt, ridicule,
or inflicts injury on reputation. To attack, accuse, and cause injury to
a person's, or a groups, good name or reputation. There are two forms of
defamation: libel and slander.
A person filing a defamation suit usually must prove that: (1) the false
statement was communicated to others through print, broadcast, or
electronic means; (2) the person was identified or is identifiable; (3)
there is actual injury in the form of money losses, loss of reputation, or
mental suffering; and (4) the person making the statement was malicious or
negligent. Related words: libel, slander. Related terms: free speech.
- Delegates: Party loyalists selected by their local parties to
represent their states at the national conventions.
- Demagogue: A person who gains power through impassioned public
appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing.
- Demographics: Statistical characteristics of a given population
(i.e. age, gender, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status,
income, occupation, education, religious and political affiliation).
- Deportation: The act of expulsion from a country's territory.
- Devil's advocacy: Arguing for the sake of raising issues or
concerns about the idea under discussion.
- Diaspora: The Jewish communities outside Israel. Also refers to
the dispersion or spreading of people originally belonging to one nation
or having a common culture (such as the Armenian Diaspora).
- Diplomacy: See "Public Diplomacy."
- Disclosure: Something that is revealed.
- Discrimination: Unfair treatment of a person, racial group, minority,
etc. Discrimination is action based on prejudice.
- Discussion group: A group of people who exchange messages about
particular topics. Often associated with newsgroups, discussion groups can
also take the form of interactive message boards, thread message forums,
and e-mailing lists.
- Disinformation: Purposefully incorrect information.
Information and material that is based on falsehoods and untruths. The
deliberate falsification of information. Related term: misinformation.
- Dissent: Disagreement. Strongly held opposition to an issue or
policy, either by a forceful minority or by the majority.
- District: A congressional district is the local geographic area
served by a member of the House of Representatives.
- Diversity: The state or quality of being different.
- Domestic policy: Actions and policies that are undertaken by a
government for internal governing.
- Donation: Contribution.
- Economic migrant: A strict reading of a 1951 U.N. convention on refugees
limits the right of asylum to so-called "political" refugees -- those
seeking a safe haven from political persecution in their home countries. The
motives driving many immigrants today, however, range from poverty and
famine to civil war, ethnic conflict and ecological catastrophes in their
homelands. Under pressure to act tough on immigration policy, many European
governments deny asylum to such migrants, claiming they are driven more by
a desire for greater economic prosperity than by a well-founded fear for
their life and freedom. In countries that make the distinction, only 10-20
percent of asylum seekers are granted permanent refugee status, according
to the U.N. The issue of whether economic migrants should be considered
legitimate refugees is a highly charged one in many European countries
- Election: The selection by vote of a person or persons from among
candidates for a position, especially a political office.
- Electioneering: The attempt by lobbies to influence the outcome
of elections by advancing the campaigns of friendly politicians or trying
to bring about the defeat of hostile opponents.
Electoral College: The process set up by the U.S.
Constitution by which the U.S. president and vice-president are elected.
In each state people elect a number of electors equal to the number of
U.S. senators and representatives for that state. The electors from each
state meet in their respective state capitals after the popular election
to cast votes for president and vice-president. The presidential candidate
winning the plurality of vote in a state receives all its Electoral
College votes. Therefore, the president of the U.S. is not chosen by
voters themselves, but by the "Electoral College" voters which is the body of
electors chosen by the voters. It is this body which formally elects the
president and vice-president. There are 538 Electoral College voters, one per senator and
representative from each state. The District of Columbia, which has no
congressional representation, has three votes. Electoral College voters
usually cast a ballot for the candidate who wins the popular vote. A candidate must
receive a majority of 270 votes to win the election. If a vote ends in a
269-269 tie, the election goes to the House of Representatives. Critics of
the electoral college maintain that the majority does not rule and that
swing states take on too much importance. The Elector College received
worldwide attention when George W. Bush became president in 2000 although
he lost the popular vote.
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- Electorate: All of the eligible voters in a legally designated
- Emigration: Migration from your native country in order to
settle in another.
- Empathy: Trying to see and understand the world as another
Empowerment: To enable, or to give power or authority.
To give the ability. Having power means having the ability to choose among
alternatives, to influence decision-making, and to exercise control over
- Enacted: When a bill becomes a law (the bill is then called "an
- Endowment: The source of income that an institution is provided
- Envoy: An accredited agent, messenger, or representative.
- Ethics: (see "Code of Ethics")
- Ethnic: Of or relating to a people whose unity rests on racial,
linguistic, religious, historical, or cultural affinities and ties. Relating to the classification of
mankind into groups. A member of an ethnic group can have certain traits
in common with other groups (often racial, religious, or linguistic).
Racial, cultural, historical affinities, or almost anything can be used to
create 'ethnic' divisions or groupings.
- Ethnic lobby: An interest group whose unity rests on racial,
linguistic, religious, historical, or cultural affinities and ties.
- Ethnic minority: An immigrant or racial type regarded by those
claiming to speak for the cultural majority as distinct and unassimilated.
- Ethnocentrism: The belief that one's own ethnic, religious,
political or cultural group
are superior to those of others. An assumption that everyone shares the
same point of view.
- Eurasia: The land mass of Europe and Asia.
- European Commission: The executive arm of the EU which seeks to uphold the interests of the EU as a
whole. The European Commission 1) proposes legislation, policies and
programs of action, 2) is
responsible for implementing the decisions of Parliament and the Council,
and 3) supervises how funds are spent.
The seat of the Commission is in Brussels. Members are appointed by the member states to
serve for 5 years. The Commission acts as the EU's executive body and as a
guardian of the Treaties. The Commission has the right of initiative and
thus can put proposals to the Council of Ministers for action. Decisions
on legislative proposals are taken in the Council of Ministers. The Commission also
represents the EU on the international stage
- European Council: A summit of the Heads of State or Government,
held at least twice a year in the capital of the member state that
currently holds the presidency of the Council of the EU (which rotates
every 6 months). The summits set priorities and give political direction,
as well as work to resolve contentious issues. Objectives include
formulating common policy in the fields of justice and home affairs, as
well as foreign and security matters. (not to be confused with the
"Council of Ministers" or the "Council of Europe")
- European "Council of Ministers": The Council of Ministers is the EU's principle decision-making body, and the
only institution which directly represents the member state's national
interests. It has both executive and legislative powers (the former
delegated in many areas to the European Commission, and the latter in some
cases exercised jointly by co-decision procedure with the European
Parliament). All EU member states are
represented by their foreign ministers within the Council of Ministers,
which reflects the views of
the EU's 374 million citizens. Members strive to resolve differences and coordinate their
national policies. Each member state of the EU has an embassy in Brussels
to manage the country's dealings with various EU institutions, to lobby,
and to have direct involvement in the legislative process through the
Council of Ministers. The Court of Justice (based in Luxembourg,
established in 1951) is the final arbiter in disputes arising from the
Community Treaties, or the legislation based upon them, and is empowered
to review the legality of legal instruments adopted by the Council of
Ministers or the Commission, and certain acts of the European Parliament.
- European Parliament: The EU Parliament, whose seat is in Strasbourg,
France, represents the EU's citizens. It shares with the Council the power
to legislate, exercises democratic supervision over all EU institutions,
and shares with the Council authority over the EU budget. There are over
625 members of the European Parliament (MEP's), elected every 5-years, who
belong to almost 100 political parties. MEP's represent a range of interests and
blocks, such as the Greens, Social Democrats, Christian Democrats, liberals, conservatives,
- European Union (EU): The 25-member EU is founded on the existing European
communities set up by the Treaties of Paris (1951) and Rome (1957),
supplemented by revisions, the Single European Act in 1986, The Maastricht
Treaty on European Union in 1992, and the draft Treaty of Amsterdam in
1997. Two years after Winston Churchill called for a "united states of
Europe," a Congress of Europe was held in 1948 in The Hague with nearly
1,000 Europeans from 26 countries. This resulted in the birth of the
Council of Europe in 1949. The aim of this European assembly of nations
was "to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of
safeguarding and realizing the ideals and principles which are their
common heritage." After a proposal in 1950 by the French foreign
minister, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands signed the Treaty of Paris establishing the "European Coal and
Steel Community." This agreement was regarded as the first step towards a
united Europe. After the success of the ECSC, plans were made to establish
two more organizations: the European Economic Community (EEC) and the
European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC). As a result these treaties
encouraged the establishment of a common market with a customs union.
During the last 30 years the EU is undergoing a process of enlargement and
integration as it seeks to strengthen its institutions, the rights of its
citizens, the freedom of movement, and plans to develop economic and
monetary union along with a common foreign and security policy.
- Eurosceptic: A person who is not convinced that further
integration and enlargement with other EU members is desirable, or
workable. There are a range of other definitions, often used for those who
are cautious, opposed, or do not see the future of the EU in a favorable
- Evangelism (evangelicals): Activities of certain Protestant
groups that involve fervent preaching of the Gospels with the goal of
converting those outside the faith to evangelical Christianity. Evangelical leaders established the Christian
Coalition in 1989. (see "Moral Majority")
- Evidence: Supporting material that provides grounds for belief.
Fact and opinion used to support a particular view or
perspective about a subject. Examples, testimony, narratives, statistics
and facts gathered to justify a position can be used to substantiate or
prove a point of view and lead an audience to agree with a thesis
- Example: Specific instance used to illustrate a concept, issue,
experience, or problem.
- Executive: The branch of government that has responsibility for
carrying out laws and policies.
- Expenditures: To spend, to disburse, to consume, or to use up. Often
refers to money.
- External affairs: The international concerns of a country such as international law,
foreign relations, international trade and commerce.
- Fact: Documented occurrences, including actual events, dates,
times, places, and people involved. A verifiable observation, experience, or event known to
- Fair comment (versus defamation): Some offensive communication
falls under the "fair comment" defense (example: a negative review by a
- Fair use (versus infringement): It is important to know
were "fair use" ends and "infringement" begins. Fair use means that part
of a copyrighted article may be briefly quoted with attribution to the
source (other conditions apply to material used for educational purposes,
or to copyrighted material if it is to be used in ads and promotional
brochures where permission is required). Registered trademarks, logos,
etc, are also protected by law.
- Fairness: An ethnical ground rule; making a genuine effort to
see all sides of an issue; being open minded.
- Fallacy: An argument that seems valid, but is flawed, because
it contains unsound evidence or reasoning.
- Far right: An extreme fringe of the Right usually advocating the use
of coercive power to impose its own views and suppress all dissenting
ideas. Also known as the radical right.
- Federal Communications Commission (FCC): PAC's, candidates, and
congressional committees must follow laws of the Federal Communications
Commission when advertising on television or radio.
Federal Election Campaign Acts FECA): Laws that regulate
contributions and spending, as well as other requirements for lobbyists. Although efforts at regulation
were made earlier, recent campaign finance reform in the U.S. began with
the landmark legislation that was passed in 1971, known as the Federal
Election Campaign Act (FECA), which replaced the older Federal Corrupt Practices
Act (an example of earlier efforts at
regulation). The new law established detailed spending limits and required fuller
disclosure of political funding. Numerous amendments have been made by
Congress since 1974.
- Federal Election Commission (FEC): The FEC is responsible for
enforcing campaign finance rules and administering election laws and
public financing program for the public interest. The FEC was established
by the FECA Amendments of 1974, as part of the campaign finance reforms of
the era. The act set limits on contributions, required disclosures and
uses of funds for federal elections, and provided matching public funds
for presidential primary and general elections. Amidst the changes, the Amendments also revised the law related
to political contribution from individuals from abroad. Foreign nationals
and people working under a federal government contract cannot give
contributions to federal candidates (except foreign nationals who have a
green card). In addition, foreign nationals can not give money to support
local or state campaigns. After 1974, any individual who
is not a U.S. citizen and who is not lawfully admitted for permanent
residence (as defined in the Foreign Agents Registration Act) is
prohibited from contributing. Almost all countries restrict or ban
contributions from foreign sources.
- Federal government: The Framers of the U.S. Constitution based the
U.S. system of government on the separation of powers and a system of
checks and balances so that no person, or group of persons, would have too
much power. The government is divided into three branches: the
legislative, the executive, and the judicial (some circles refer to
lobbying as the fourth branch of the American government). The Federal government has
authority in matters of general taxation, treaties and other dealings with
foreign countries, the armed forces, foreign and inter-state commerce,
crimes against the U.S., bankruptcy, postal service, coinage, weights and
measures, patents and copyright, and has sole legislative authority over
the District of Columbia and the possessions of the U.S.
- Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act: Until the 1946 Federal
Regulation of Lobbying Act, lobbyists remained unregulated in any
significant way. The measure simply required lobbyists to disclose whom
they lobbied for, and how much they received.
- Federalism: A government system in which constitutional authority is
divided between a central government and state or provincial governments.
Federalism is the ability of both state and federal governments to make
their own laws.
- Financing: To raise or provide funds or capital for.
- Focus group: A moderated discussion among a small group of
respondents on a particular topic (often used by party strategists to
explore the thinking and emotions lying behind people's attitudes). A
focus group can be comprised of a group of persons (representative of the
audience a public relations practitioner, politician, marketer, etc. seeks to
reach), who are asked to give their opinions of proposed programs. For
example, a focus group can be made-up of Hispanics
between the ages of 18-21, who are used to canvass a representative sample of a
larger group of people on some question.
- Foggy Bottom: U.S. Department of State, which deals with foreign
- Foreign affairs: International law, international trade and commerce,
and relations with other countries.
- Foreign agent: A person or a firm (lobbyist) who is
hired by a foreign country, corporation, or organization to lobby
Congress. Foreign agents must register and periodically disclose specified
information (such as funds received from a foreign principal to represent
their interests). (see "Lobbying USA")
- Foreign Agents Registration Act: Lobbyists who represent the
interests of foreign countries on Capitol Hill, or with the executive
branch, are subject to disclosure regulations under the Foreign Agents
Registration Act (FARA), which falls under the jurisdiction of the Justice
Department. These lobbyists are also subject to other lobbying
regulations, such as the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1994.
- Foreign policy: Actions and policies that are undertaken by a
government regarding external relations.
- Foundation: An institution founded through an endowment and
supported through the future with that endowment. Foundations are tax-free
and can award tax-free grants for specific philanthropic purposes.
- Funding: Government grants or private sources of money,
from the public or the private sector.
- Fund-raising: To gather a sum of money and other resources.
- Generalization: Error in reasoning when a conclusion is reached
without enough evidence to support it.
- Genocide: The deliberate and systematic destruction of a
national, ethnic, racial, or religious group by means of murder, serious
bodily harm, or mental harm. Genocide was
defined as a crime by the United Nations General Assembly in 1951 (the
international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in
Articles II and III of the 1948 United Nations Convention on the
Prevention & Punishment of the Crime of Genocide). As a consequence
of the Nuremberg trials (conducted by an international tribunal), in which
top Nazi leaders were tried for "crimes against humanity," the UN drew up
a treaty defining and criminalizing genocide. The Convention was adopted
by the General Assembly on December 9, 1948, and came into effect on
January 12, 1951.
- Geo-strategy: A branch of geo-politics that deals with strategy. The
combination of geopolitical and strategic factors characterizing a
particular geographic region. Also can mean the use by a government of
strategy based on geopolitics.
- Geopolitics: The term was first coined in the 19th century, and
has come to mean international strategy, taking into consideration the
strategic needs and problems of major powers.
- Gerrymander: To draw the lines of political districts to favor
particular groups, usually the political party in power. The division of
voting districts to give one group an advantage over the other.
- Global civil society: The extension of civil
society from national to global, regional and transnational forms,
involving the development of globalist culture, ideology and politics.
Greenpeace is an example of the emergence of a transnational civil society
with a globalist orientation. Many organizations with a global orientation
foster universal values. They may also seek ethnical approaches to
international relations and fighting world poverty, oppose weapons
developments and war, and strive for humane globalization and global
- Globalization: Refers to the way in which global economic
relations are interlinked and now transcend national boundaries (includes
a wide range of subjects, such as legal frameworks, national sovereignty,
transnational institutions, multinationals, NGO's, and information
- Government affairs: PR activity relating directly with
legislatures and regulatory agencies on behalf of an organization.
Lobbying can be part of a government affairs program.
- Grassroots: The power of ordinary people in influencing
their political leaders. When average citizens seek to express their
views by contacting their representatives about issues of public concern
(often individuals are urged to do so by grassroots lobbying activities). Grassroots is the base or fundamental root of political power; in a democracy,
it is the people. The term grassroots is often used to refer to average
citizens. Related terms: Grassroots lobbying, grassroots activism,
- Grassroots lobbying: This is an attempt through
collective action to influence
legislation and/or to affect the opinions of the general
public. Some grassroots lobbying tools include: "Calls-To-Action," press
releases, sending "Action Alerts" to the media, targeting the media with
PR campaigns, coalition building, advocacy advertising, bulk
faxing, organizing calls to representatives, computerized direct mail, and letters
from the public to EU officials and/or members of European Parliament, the White House, and governmental regulatory
agencies. Grassroots lobbying occurs when an organization asks the public
to support, oppose, or otherwise influence legislation by contacting
elected and appointed officials. A grassroots lobbying effort is usually
triggered by a "Call-To-Action" which directs ordinary people to act in a
certain way. NGO's often send out an action alert to the media, public,
donors, and other NGO's asking them to support their advocacy position and
urge them to take a specific action. In contrast, "Direct Lobbying" occurs
when an organization communicates its position with regard to legislation,
or legislative proposals, directly with legislators, legislative staff,
executive branch officials, and executive staff.
- Grassroots mobilization: Grassroots mobilization takes
place when actions are taken to organize ordinary citizens with the aim of
putting them in motion. These actions aim to gain support for a specific
lobbying need or for advocacy purposes. Grassroots activities and mobilization may
attempt to shape public opinion that is favorable to a desired legislative
goal (or against it) by encouraging members of a group to call,
or write, to their representative, or to visit their district
representative or state senator. Therefore, grassroots mobilization involves
organized and coordinated efforts by lobbies to encourage constituents to
contact their representatives by writing letters, sending faxes and
e-mails, gathering in public, and using other lobbying tools. Indirect
lobbying by the Turkish lobby requires effective grassroots mobilization.
- Groupthink: The tendency of a group to accept information and
ideas without subjecting them to critical analysis. When a group conforms
to a single frame of mind and chooses a solution without fully and
objectively examining other potential solutions.
- Gubernatorial: Relating to a governor, such as a gubernatorial
- Hard money: Campaign contributions that go to a specific
candidate's campaigns. Money raised and spent (from individuals, PAC's, or
party committees) is subject to
strict regulations by the Federal Election Commission, the Internal
Revenue Service, and other entities. Individuals can make contributions of
up to $37,500 each year to all federal candidates, political parties, and
political action committees.
- Hate speech: Any offensive communication (verbal or nonverbal)
directed against people's race, ethnicity, religion, or other
- Hearing: A session, usually of a committee or subcommittee, to
gather information and hear testimony. A formal, judicial-like proceeding conducted by
U.S. administrative agencies and congressional committees to gain
information pertaining to individual cases or broader public issues.
- Hegemony: The domination or rule of one actor over others. In
civil society, the cultural, ideological and political dominance of a
social class or group, or bloc of social classes or groups.
- Heritage: Something possessed as a result of one's natural situation
or birth, such as a cultural or ethnic heritage. Something transmitted by
or acquired from a predecessor.
- Hispanic: Being a person of Latin American descent living in the U.S.
(especially one of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin). Hispanics are
the fastest growing ethnic minority in America, and might not be called a minority in the
near future. In the past many Cubans lived primarily in Florida, Puerto Ricans lived mainly in the
Northeast, and Mexicans lived mostly in states which border Mexico,
such as Texas and California. Today large communities of Hispanics are
found in almost every state. Dominicans, Haitians, and other people from
the Caribbean region, as well as Central and South American groups, also
have sizable representations. Millions of these people, however, lack
legal residency status and are referred to as illegal aliens or undocumented workers.
- Hot pursuit: A legal doctrine that permits
the pursuit of persons (suspected of criminal conduct) escaping from one
state to another (by land or by sea). Since the mid-1980s, hot pursuit
has enabled Turkey to conduct cross-border operations into northern Iraq
as part of a fight against terrorism (and to stop infiltration into Turkey
from this area where PKK terrorist bases are located). Turkey is eager to
conduct further unilateral and joint operations with U.S., Iraqi, and
other security forces.
- House of Commons: The lower house of parliament in the United
Kingdom. In Europe the development of democracy over the centuries is tied
to the growth of power of parliament over the monarchy.
- House of Lords: The upper house of parliament in the United
- House of Representatives: There are 435 members elected every second
year (apportioned according to the population of each state). Unlike the
Senate whose members are elected for six years, the entire House of Representatives membership faces re-election
every two years.
- Houses of Congress: Refers to both the Senate and House of
- Human rights: Enunciated at Helsinki, they include: "the right to be
free from governmental violations of the integrity of the person..."; "the
right to the fulfillment of such vital needs as food, shelter, health
care, and education..."; "and "the right to enjoy civil and political
liberties..." International and local human rights groups, such as
Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, monitor countries across the
- Hype: The promotion of a product, person, company, movie, etc.,
through shrewd use of the media.
- Hyphenated Americans: Some times used when referring to groups or
people of different origins living in the U.S. (such as Italian-American,
Irish-American or Turkish-American).
- Identity: The distinguishing character or personality of an individual
or group. Ethnicity, ethnic politics, and ethnic conflict have raised
socio-political questions tied to national identity in many countries
since the early 1990's.
- Ideologue: An often blindly partisan advocate or adherent of a
- Ideology: A collection of ideas, based upon the values and aspirations
of those who believe in them, that often becomes the foundation of
political activities and movements.
- Illegal: Not according to or authorized by law.
- Image: A popular conception of a nation, institution, or person,
projected especially through the mass media.
- Image-building: Protection and enhancement of the reputation of
an organization or individual.
- Immigrant: Broadly defined as anyone who enters a country other
than their native country with the intention of settling there. In
practice, the term encompasses a wide range of non-native people who
reside in a country, either legally or illegally. In the U.S. There are different kinds of immigrants such as
lawfully admitted, illegal, refugees or political asylum seekers. An
immigrant may gain citizenship through naturalization.
- Immigration: Migration to a country of which you are not a
native, in order to settle there. People who have immigrated to the U.S.
are known as "immigrant
- In office: The fact or state of holding a public position of
- Incumbency: The office and duties of an incumbent. The period of
- Incumbent: A person holding office, particularly an elected official
such as a member of Congress or the president.
- Influence: The act, power, or capacity of producing an effect without
apparent exertion of force (i.e. using money, power, credibility,
emotional appeal, or even misinformation). Inspirational speeches are very
effective in motivating an audience and encouraging them to act. Related
words: persuasion, influence peddling.
- Information warfare: A strategy for
countering propaganda in order to change perceptions. Disinformation is
commonly used in information or psychological warfare. See propaganda.
- Informative speech: A speech whose general
purpose is to increase the audience's understanding and awareness of a
- Integrity: Adherence to moral principles;
honesty. The quality of being incorruptible, or able to avoid compromise
for the sake of personal expediency. The ability to avoid the use of
inappropriate methods that are advantageous rather than fair and just.
- Insiders: Elected and appointed officials.
- Interest: Special attention. Also means curiosity about, or
involvement in something.
- Interest group, special interest group: An organized collection of
people with similar concerns who join together for the purpose of
influencing government policy. The term is used to refer to lobbying
groups. Targets of these lobbying groups often include the general public,
legislative lobbying, or media lobbying. Different means are used, such as
electronic lobbying, coalition building, think-tanks, advertising, or
public relations campaigns.
- Interfaith: Approaches or dialogues aimed at integrating diverse
religions, or coming together in order to understand each of them.
- Internal affairs: The domestic concerns of a country.
- Internally displaced persons: Refers to migrants who have fled their home "suddenly or
unexpectedly and in large numbers" as a result of "armed conflict, internal
strife, systematic violations of human rights or natural and man-made
disasters," and resettled in their own country, according to a 1951 U.N.
convention on refugees.
- International: Of, relating to, or constituting a group or association
having members in two or more nations. Reaching beyond national boundaries.
- International protection: The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is
mandated to ensure the welfare of people whose own governments have proven
unable, or unwilling, to guarantee their basic human rights and physical
security. Because the UNHCR lacks the supranational authority to enforce
laws in sovereign states, the organisation can only "assist" Convention
member states in fulfilling their obligations to protect refugees and asylum
- Invasion of privacy: Because a person has a right to privacy,
it is important to get written permission to publish photos, or use people
in advertising materials, and to be careful about releasing personal
information about people to the media.
- Issue (media advocacy): Issue advocacy seeks to
use the media to generate public awareness of an issue, cause, or matter
of particular concern to an individual, group, or organization (the issue
is often a subject of controversy). Issue advocacy is the strategic use of
media as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative.
Issue advocacy can also be called media advocacy.
- Issues management: Program of identifying and addressing issues
of public concern in which a company is or should be involved.
- Jargon: Specialized terminology developed within a given
profession or field of study. Technical language used for a special
- Joint-resolution: A resolution approved by both the House and Senate
that becomes a law upon the signature of the president.
- Joint-venture: A business partnership.
- Judicial: Belonging to the branch of government that is charged with
trying all cases that involve the government and with the administration
of justice within its jurisdiction.
- K Street: Many lobbyists have their offices along this main
commercial thoroughfare in Washington. It is used as a term to refer to
the lobbying community as a whole.
- Laïcité: Secularism
- Latino: A person of Latin American origin living in the U.S.
- Lawful: Being in accordance with the law. Legal. Legitimate.
- Leadership: Leadership is a quality that is reflected in the
ability of a person or a group of people to persuade others to act by
inspiring them, while sharing a common belief that a proposed course of
action is the correct one.
- Left: Generally known as those holding extreme liberal views and
advocating government intervention.
- Left-wing: A faction of a political organization that is to the
of the majority.
- Legal: Conforming to or permitted by law or established rules.
- Legislation: Laws that apply to all persons within the jurisdiction of
the legislative body enacting them.
- Legislative: Belonging to the branch of government that is charged
with such powers as making laws, levying and collecting taxes, and making
- Legislator: Lawmaker.
- Legislature: The legislature is the official rule-making body
of a political system.
- Libel: Traditionally, libel is a printed falsehood and
"slander" is an oral statement that is false. Today, there is little
difference and the term "defamation" is used as a collective term.
Defamation is any false statement about a person (or organization) that
creates public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or inflicts injury on
reputation. A person's reputation can be harmed by the use of print,
broadcast, or pictures. Libel is an offense that is punishable by criminal law in the U.S., and
subject to civil prosecution for damages. Related terms: free speech.
- Liberal: The word liberal has taken on a pejorative connotation
in American politics especially after September 11. Liberals are viewed as
weak on defense, and in the media have been accused of being un-American
(against the interests of the U.S., and not in accordance with the aims,
ideals, customs, etc., of the U.S.). Many have feared to express their
view for fear of being labeled unpatriotic. Amidst calls for uniting
America, liberals have also been criticized for their open minded
positions of religious and family values. For decades liberals have
included those in favor of civil liberties, redistributive policies, and
civil rights enforcement.
- Lobby: (used as a verb) "To lobby" means to apply
pressure, present arguments, or other incentives to try to make a
political decision-maker favor the position of the lobby. "To lobby" means
to try to influence or convince lawmakers or governmental bodies to take a specific
- Lobby: (used as a noun) As a noun, a "lobby" is an organized collection of
people with similar concerns who join together for the purpose of
influencing government policy. Many of these groups seek to promote
legislation, or political action, or to change public opinion in order to
promote their own ideas, interests, agenda, and welfare. Lobbies carry out
the function of "interest articulation." The activity they are engaged in
is known as "lobbying." A lobby is often called an
"interest group," or sometimes a "special interest group," or
group." Lobbies can also be referred to as "ethnic interest groups,"
"organized interests," and "single interest groups."
These groups strategically use and transmit information to achieve their goals
(activities can be nationwide, local, global, or within the EU). There are
different types of lobbying such as legislative lobbying and media lobbying,
as well as different targets such as the general public or community
leaders. The definition of a lobby, and the activity of lobbying
sometimes is a
matter of differing interpretation. A lobby can mean a group, person, or
firm which is registered to lobby in the U.S., or a lobby can mean an
informal organization of people. One
definition of lobbying is limited to direct attempts to influence
lawmakers by direct contact and face-to-face meetings with lawmakers in order to influence the passage or defeat of
legislation. This includes communication with any member or employee of a
legislative body or government official who may participate in the
formulation of the legislation. Another definition of lobbying includes indirect attempts,
such as grassroots pressure and mobilization, coalition building,
advertising, public relations, the use of mass media, and electronic
lobbying. Indirect lobbying and supporting political campaigns can be done by various groups such as
corporations, trade associations, professional associations,
unions, governmental organizations, policy institutes, think-tanks, NGO's,
and non-profit organizations. The
most effective type of lobbying is all-directional lobbying, or
multiple-target advocacy and pressure (a combination of direct influence
and targeting the public arena).
This requires interrelated strategies. There is ongoing debate over whether lobbies serve the public
interest because they often represent interests that seek objectives and
outcomes which benefit narrow sectors in society. Lobbies have also been
criticized for the selective information they sometimes transmit to
pressure members of Congress. Targets of influence are sometimes called lobbying contacts. The plural of the word
lobby is "lobbies."
- Lobby (Turkish lobby USA): The general definition of the
Turkish lobby consists of two lobbying groups. The first group is made-up of lobbyists
in Washington, D.C. that are hired by the Turkish government. The other
group refers to the Turkish-American community in the U.S., which is
estimated to be somewhere between 300,000-400,000. It is estimated that
only 50,000 to 80,000 Turkish-Americans vote in the U.S. elections. The
community is represented by many Turkish-American organizations which have
been established in different states of the U.S. (these associations are based
on different interests, such as cultural, business, medical, scientific,
or educational). In 1979, when the Assembly of Turkish American
Associations (ATAA) was established in Washington, D.C., many
Turkish-American organizations became members, enabling the ATAA to act
and serve as an
umbrella organization. The ATAA has represented the Turkish community in
the capital, in federal and state governments, and interacted with the
media and the pubic. Because a large percentage of Turkish-Americans live
in the northeastern U.S., especially near New York State, the Federation
of Turkish American Associations (FTAA), based in New York City, has been
active in coordinating grassroots activities.
The Turkish-American community can be divided into two groups: those who
have come from the Turkish Republic, and those who have come to America
from areas outside Turkey, such as Cyprus, the Balkans, the Caucasus and
Central Asia. The estimated figure of these groups combined is 500,000-600,000
(only a small percentage are U.S. citizens, but are often referred to as
- Lobbying: To conduct activities aimed at influencing
public officials on legislation. Hired lobbyists, foreign agents,
and grassroots movements can all participate in lobbying for the purpose
of influencing government policy and public opinion.
- Lobbying (USA): The Lobbying Disclosure Act of
1994, increased the disclosure requirements for lobbyists operating in the
U.S. Lobbyists must register with the Clerk of the House or the Secretary
of the Senate, depending on the type of lobbying they conduct. The
disclosure also makes public the areas in which a lobbyist works for a
client, who the client is, and how much the lobbyist is paid for his work.
Lobbyists are required to register under the law if: 1) they receive more
than $5,000 from a client for lobbying over a six-month period; 2) they
have frequent contacts with congressional staff, members, or executive
branch officials; 3) and more than 20% of their time working for a client
involves lobbying. Any group that has its own lobbyists in-house must
register once expenses on lobbying exceed $20,500 in six months. A person,
or a firm, who conducts lobbying on behalf of a foreign government, and
who represent the interests of foreign countries on Capitol Hill, or with
the executive branch, is known as a "foreign agent." They are subject
to disclosure regulations under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA),
which falls under the jurisdiction of the Justice Department. Foreign
commercial interests that meet all the criteria under the U.S. Lobbying
Disclosure Act must register with the House or the Senate.
Click here for more information
- Lobbying (EU): Lobbying in the U.S. seeks to promote or secure
the passage of legislation in Congress, but lobbying targets can be
members of a legislative body anywhere in the world, such as
representatives of the European Union (it should be noted that despite the
co-decision procedure, the European Parliament is not fully authorized to
make laws and works as a co-legislature with the EU's Council of Ministers).
Because many European Union institutions and bodies are located in
Brussels, most European-wide lobbying organizations have their
headquarters there. Brussels-based lobbying has been attracting attention
since the 1990's. Corporations, PR firms, trade associations,
commercial and industrial interests, consumer protection organizations, human rights groups,
animal welfare activists, aid organizations, and
single-issues lobbies all have representative offices in Brussels. The
emergence of new technologies has also made NGO's aware of how important
the battle for public opinion is, as they compete for media attention in
order to communicate effectively with EU citizens and the world. Despite
the growth of professional lobbying firms in Brussels, their impact on
decisions and how they operate have not been extensively examined.
Although the European Commission has a list of hundreds of bodies it
is no official register of recognized lobbies (or pressure groups) that is produced by the Commission or
European Parliament. According to CONECCS (Consultation, the European Community and Civil Society) over
1,000 interests groups are active. Yet over 10,000 (perhaps up to 20,000)
people are believed to be engaged in "interest representation," the
majority being business groups. The Commission sometimes funds these
bodies and actively works with them to encourage cultivating loyalties to
the European level. Many lobbying firms are hired to monitor developments
in a particular EU subject-area, to enable access to decision-makers, arrange
meetings, suggest contacts, and assist in advocacy of a case.
Click here to
view accredited lobbyists to the European Parliament
- Lobbyist: A lobbyist is a person, or firm, that is
employed by a particular interest to advocate a specific policy, measure, or point of view to an elected lawmaker or governmental body. A lobbyist
attempts to influence voting on legislation, or the
decisions of government administrators. Lobbyists seek "to lobby"
by using effective methods to influence
their targets. Lobbyists must register with the Clerk of the
House or the Secretary of the Senate, depending on the type of
lobbying they conduct. Professional lobbyists are paid to actively
pursue the interests of the group they are working on behalf of (for example the Turkish government has regularly
hired lobbyists, most recently the Livingston Group in Washington D.C., to
supplement the official embassy representation. This lobbying firm is
headed by a former Republican Congressman from Louisiana, Bob Livingston.
The Livingston Group merged with The
Solomon Group in 2002). There are more than 12,000 active lobbyists working
in Washington at every level of government. A lobbyist is sometimes called
- Local government: Within U.S. states there are smaller subdivisions
(cities, counties, towns and villages) that have their own governments.
Laws for their residents are made by bodies often called councils, which
can also impose taxes. Although, local governments vary from state to
state, they each have executive and legislative branches as well.
- Mailing lists: Horizontal mailing lists deal with mass media
and have the cross section of the public as its audience (helpful for a
message or product with a universal interest). Vertical mailing lists
target audiences with special interests (for example, groups with
interests in sports, art, or business).
- Mainstream: The political position generally at the center on the
- Majority Leader: The second-ranking party position in the House
(the first is in the Senate). The Majority Leader schedules floor action
of bills and guides the party's legislative program through the House.
- Manipulate: to change or to control by unfair or insidious means
especially to one's advantage and to serve one's purpose.
- Marketing: The process or technique of promoting, selling, and
distributing a product or service. The goal is to attract and satisfy
customers (or clients) on a long-term basis in order to achieve an
organization's economic objectives. The fundamental aim of marketing is to
build and maintain markets for an organization's products or services. "Marketing research"
is conducted in order to study the means of promoting a product or service.
- Marketing communications: Product publicity, promotion. and
advertising. The combination of activities designed to sell a product,
service, or idea, including advertising, publicity, direct mail, trade
shows, special events, etc.
- Marketing public relations: Use of public relations techniques
to support overall advertising and marketing objectives of a company or
- Mass communication: Communication generated by media
organizations that is designed to reach large audiences. Mass media are
the means by which mass communication takes place, where large numbers of
people receive information in a short period of time. Television, radio
news broadcasts, and mass rallies are examples of mass communication. As
new technologies emerge, the means by which mass communication takes place
is transforming. (Click here for
- Mass media: The part of the media that appeals to very large numbers
of people. The role of mass media in civil society is extremely important
because participation in a democracy and civil society depends on the
openness of communications media and on a diversity of information sources
- Measure: Legislation (a bill or resolution).
- Media advocacy:
Media advocacy seeks to use the media to influence public opinion and generate public awareness of an issue, cause, or matter
of particular concern to an individual, group, or organization (the issue
is often a subject of controversy). Media advocacy is the strategic use of
media as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative.
Media advocacy can also be called issue advocacy.
- Media relations: Working with mass media in seeking publicity,
or responding to the interests of the media.
- Melting pot: A metaphor for the assimilation of diverse cultures.
- MP: Member of parliament. National parliamentarians.
- MEP: Member of the European Parliament.
- Military-industrial-complex: The triangle of the U.S. Defense
Department, its supervisory committees on Capitol Hill, and the armaments
industry that often determines defense policy. Companies dependent on
defense contracts are powerful lobbyists, and often side with the
Department of Defense in an effort to subdue objections to U.S. weapons
expenditures. The term was coined by President Eisenhower in 1961, when he
referred to the threats to American democracy from too close a
relationship between major corporations in the defense industry and the
- Minister: A high officer of state entrusted with the management of a
division of governmental activities. Can also be a diplomatic
- Minority: A part of a population differing from others in some
characteristics, and often subjected to differential treatment.
- Minority Leader: The head of the minority party in the House
and in the Senate.
- Minority groups: In the U.S., and some European
countries, minority groups are becoming more conscious of a sense of their
roots, and rather than assimilating they are creating mini-societies of
their own. Some countries such as France have stressed assimilation,
whereas others such as the U.S. believe that diversity enhances a nation's
cultural mosaic. Some observers foresee increasing tension and conflicts
among groups. On the other hand, minority groups in the U.S. can also be
seen as assimilating successfully. Due to what is called "the changing
face of America" in the 21st century, by the middle of the century
non-Hispanic whites will be a minority. Sociologists have noted that it is
difficult to describe the average American today (and the American way of
life), as well as to find a great deal of similarity between traditional
nuclear American families and families today (for example, more people
live alone than are married couples with children). According to one study
20 million Americans say they are American without claiming any other
- Misinformation: Information that is false. Related word:
- Mislead (misdirect): To lead in a wrong direction, or into a mistaken
action, or belief, often by deliberate deceit.
- Misrepresent: To give a false, or misleading, representation of
--usually with the intent to deceive or be unfair.
- Misunderstand: To interpret incorrectly, and fail to understand.
- Mobilization (mobilizing): To prepare and assemble for action, such as
to mobilize support for a cause.
- Moderate: Having political or social beliefs that are not extreme.
- Moral Majority: A movement established in 1979 in the U.S. by Reverend
Jerry Falwell which appealed to many fundamentalist Protestants. The Right
movement's platform includes school prayer and opposition to abortion, pornography,
and homosexuality. Evangelical leaders, who
established the Christian Coalition in 1989, are sometimes referred to as
Christian fundamentalists. Evangelicals have become more
willing to engage in politics with increased intensity of belief. In Oct.
2002, Reverend Falwell announced on CBS that the Prophet Muhammed was "a
terrorist." Well-known supporters, such as Franklin Graham
(son of Billy Graham) have called Islam evil
and "a wicked religion."
The former president of the Southern Baptist Convention has called the Prophet Muhammed "a
demon-possessed pedophile." Pat Robertson has described the Muslim Prophet
"a robber and a brigand" in addition to describing Islam as "a monumental scam." The secular and religious divisions within
America are often highlighted by the demands of evangelical groups.
Evangelicals also provide an important domestic base of support for the
pro-Israel lobby due to their religious beliefs.
- Motion: A proposal for a certain action to be taken.
- Motive (motivation): Something (as a need or desire) that causes a
person to act. The motive, or motivation, can be the result of an
influence, force, or stimulus.
- Movement: A series of organized events working toward an objective. An
organized effort to promote or attain an end (ex: the civil rights
- MP: Member of Parliament
- Multi-culturalism, multi-cultural: An appreciation of diverse cultures.
Also refers to individuals who derive from mixed racial and ethnic
ancestry. Many schools and institutions in the U.S. have taken the
position that multiculturalism should be encouraged as a way of life and
that groups should take pride in embracing their ethnic identity.
- Multi-ethnic (multi-ethnicity): The combination of various ethnic and
- Multilateralism: A foreign policy that seeks to encourage the
involvement of several countries in coordinated action.
- Municipalities: Cities or towns with local self-government.
- NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People. A public interest group that seeks to advance the public's
interest in civil rights.
- National: Concerning the country as a whole, not local. Also means the
member of a nation.
- National convention: Votes are cast for delegates in order to
determine the party nominee.
- National representations: Each member state of the EU has an
embassy in Brussels to manage the country's dealings with various EU
institutions, to lobby, and to have direct involvement in the legislative
process through the Council of Ministers.
- Nationalism: A belief that the inhabitants or citizens of the
constitute a single community with something in common. A sentiment based on common
cultural characteristics that binds a population (these communities often
live under one political system and are independent of others). Nationalism,
which contrasts with internationalist movements, can be
exaggerated, passionate or fanatical devotion to a national community,
which can be described as "chauvinism" (aggressive or fanatical
patriotism, or the belief of the superiority of one's own race). Nationalism is also defined as
the concentration of power or authority in the central government of a
- Nationality: Membership, citizenship, in a particular country.
- Native American: A member of any of the indigenous peoples of
North, Central, or South America.
- Naturalization: The act of granting citizenship of a country to
a person who is not a native of that country. Citizenship, or nationality,
is the primary criterion used in most European countries to distinguish
between those who are considered "locals" and those who are, for
bureaucratic purposes, outsiders or immigrants. A person becomes a U.S. citizen through naturalization
and is thereafter called a naturalized citizen of the U.S.
- Neo-Conservatives (Neo-cons): U.S. foreign policy has often
been described as a neo-conservative led foreign policy. The origins of
the neo-con foreign policy agenda are a topic of intense research and
debate. Neo-conservative thought began in the 1960's as a philosophical
movement and reaction to the politics of the time, but scholars have still
been struggling to define the term. Some have described neo-cons as an
influential special interest, or domestic lobby, that has come to power.
Political analysts point out that neo-conservatives hold important
positions in the U.S. administration, Pentagon, and Defense Department,
and are responsible for bold and aggressive U.S. policies.
Neo-conservatives have described themselves as realists, but are
increasingly seen as controversial members of a grandiose thinkers movement who seek to
reshape the world with American power. Recent books on neo-con thought
claim this small group of people have imperial ambitions and seek to
create an American-dominated world order (a unipolarist ideology of
American global preeminence). They include policymakers, intellectuals,
writers, academics, ideologues, and major figures in think-tanks. Many
analysts believe that the attacks of Sept. 11 helped to launch the long
desired neo-conservative-led war with Iraq. The roots of
neo-conservatism, beginning as a rightward movement of a group from the
left, are also an area of current interest. Sources that have influenced
them are Irving Kristol, Leo Strauss, Albert Wohlstetter, Charles
Krauthammer, and Marxist thought. Disillusionment and a rejection of some
underlying assumptions of American liberalism brought the first generation
of neo-cons together when they split from the American left in the
mid-1960's. After 1967 and the Six-Day War, neo-cons became identified
with new values of American Judaism, and were viewed as the leadership of
the American Jewish community because they were seen as the most hostile
to the enemies of Jews and Israel. During the 1970's, some writers
maintain that President Reagan accepted the neo-con doctrine that Israel
was a surrogate for the Free World, threatened by communism and Third
World terrorists. Neo-cons have supported Western values, have been
hostile to communism, favor a strong American profile abroad, defend
capitalism, advocate deregulation and welfare reform, are skeptical about
the role of government, are hostile to utopias, and have a traditional
approach to religion and morality (bringing neo-cons closer to
Evangelicals). The early neo-cons came from the first generation of Jewish
socialist New Yorkers, were born in the 1930's, and were former Democrats.
Neo-conservatism was a declining movement in the 1990's, but since the
original founding neo-cons, a third generation has arisen and the movement
has merged into the mainstream Republican right, and regained power in the
second Bush administration. Observers have noted increasing neo-con
concern with the Middle East region, the fate of Israel, and their desire
to secure Israel's safety and predominance in the Middle East. Some
analysts predict that the neo-cons have no intention of stopping with Iraq
in their plan to remake the Middle East, and that the second phase of the
war on terrorism will target other countries, such as Iran and Syria, in
order to trigger radical transformation in an attempt bring democracy to the Middle
East. Based on America's economic and security interests, the neo-cons
also seek to prevent the emergence of rival power blocs and see the fight
against terrorism as a world war. Critics do not believe it is in the U.S.
interest to commit such a large portion of the U.S. Army to Iraq, while
others argue that such creative destruction
breeds more terrorists, creates worldwide Anti-Americanism, weakens alliances,
stirs unrest in the Muslim world, and is based on policies that have
endangered America. The neo-con rise to influence and power, and the
impact of neo-cons on 21st century U.S. foreign policy, is a hotly debated
subject that needs to be better understood for enhancing U.S. security and
U.S. relations with the world.
- News conference (press conference): Meeting at which the
spokesperson for an organization or an individual in the news delivers
information to reporters and answers their questions.
- News release: Timely information about an activity of a public
relations practitioner's client or organization, distributed in
- NGO, Non-governmental organization: An organization
(often led by volunteers) with no
fundamental ties to government which seeks to meet human and social needs,
whose primary goal is not commercial. Through involvement in voluntary
associations and the use of advanced communication technology, individuals
are playing an increasingly important role in shaping the agenda and
character of world politics. NGO's derive their dynamism from social
participation and social cohesion, in a world that is becoming smaller and
more diverse. Because of their increasing number, NGO's are playing an
important role in the emergence of a global civil society. Although there
is no internationally agreed definition of the concept of a "global civil society,"
the impact of their transnational activity has clearly been felt
within the United Nations and European Union, as NGO activity acquires
global political significance and shapes the development of societies,
individual attitudes and behavior. (Click here for
- Non-immigrant: Often used to refer to the so-called "skilled" immigrant
who comes to a country, commonly by invitation, to work in a particular
field of expertise (such as information technology or nursing) under a fixed
contract and who is expected to return to their country of origin when that
contract expires. Faced with labour shortages in key high-tech growth
areas, Germany recently launched a green card scheme aimed at attracting up
to 20,000 such skilled immigrants by 2004. In practice, experts say, the
line between "non-immigrant" and "immigrant" tends to blur when members of
the former category overstay their welcome and settle permanently in the new
country -- as happened with many of the guest workers invited to help
rebuild Germany after World War II.
- Non-profit organization: An organization, foundation or
endowment, whose activities are
not for the purpose of making a profit. They play a vital role in
fulfilling community needs that are not met by commercial enterprises
(private sector) or governmental entities (public sector). Leaders and staff are often
non-paid volunteers. These organizations may be entirely funded by
voluntary donations and often give grants. In the U.S. most non-profit philanthropic and voluntary organizations
have a tax exempt status, often possessing tax code numbers
501 (c)(3) and (4) or 527. Lobbying is permitted to definable limits, so
non-profits can be part of the legislative process, but are not allowed to
participate in the political election of candidates. Also known as "not-for-profit,"
or "non-profit," or "non-profit org."
- Objective: Having a fair and undistorted view on a question or
- Official: A person who holds an office. Also means authorized,
- OIC: Organization of the Islamic Conference. Currently led by
- Opinion leader: A person, usually a member of the political, economic,
or social elite, who can influence the views of others.
- Opinion poll: Measures of public attitude, on any issue,
carried out by professional polling organizations, whose primary business
is in market research. A canvassing of a representative sample of a large group
of people on some question in order to determine the general opinion of
the group. Polls often measure the voting intention of the electorate,
rank politicians and parties, and popularity of policy alternatives.
Polling techniques are complex, may be misleading, and are not always
accurate. They usually employ sampling or questionnaires (whose wording
can effect the person being polled if not neutral). The results of polls
may change the attitude of the public due to psychological factors.
- Origin: Ancestry, parentage, the derivation from a source.
- Oversight: The effort by Congress, through hearings,
investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the
activities of executive agencies.
- Outreach: Reaching out. Some agencies or services
provide outreach programs, designed as quality of life supplements (they
usually seeks to aid less fortunate members of society such as the poor,
homeless, the elderly, veterans, or teenagers who are in need of
counseling, fighting substance-abuse, or family violence).
- Paradigm: Paradigms are models or patterns of various
cultures. They determine values, norms, provide regulations, and influence
how we think and act. The properties of a particular paradigm may change
when viewed from different perspectives. Many strategists believe that
since the collapse of communism we are entering a new global paradigm (and
should be prepared for an accelerated process of change). Other thinkers point to a new struggle between two different
paradigms that entails a clash between a multilateralism oriented European Union,
and unilateralist U.S., with competing interests in Asia. Organizations
and lobbies should be able to anticipate impending paradigm shifts, deal
with change, adapt and take opportunity of major trends as they emerge. An
atmosphere of uncertainty, confusion, and unknowns can result in paralyses
and inaction. In order to take action that can have an impact on the future,
trend trackers need to ask: What
are the important issues that Turkey, Europe, Asia, the U.S., and rest of
the world will be confronted with
in the 21st century and beyond?
- Parliament: The supreme legislative body of a major political unit
that is a continuing institution comprising a series of individual
- Parliamentarian: A member of parliament.
- Participation: Involvement.
- Partisan: A person who is strongly committed to a political party or
ideology. Nonpartisan, on the other hand, is defined as not having a party
loyalty, and may mean being objective and neutral.
- Partisanship: Loyalty to a particular political party.
- Party identification: The tendency of people to think of
themselves as Democrats, Republicans, or independents.
- Party line: The official position of a political party on current
issues. Party discipline usually involves enforcement of a party line.
- Patriotism, patriotic, patriot: One who loves his or her country and supports its
authority and national interests is patriotic (and a patriot).
- Patronage: The rewards of office dispensed to loyal followers and
supporters by elected officials as a means of securing political power.
- Perception: The act of becoming aware or conscious of
something. The way information from the external world is provided can be
manipulated in a way so as to have an impact on how it might be observed
or interpreted by the individual.
- Persuasion: The process of influencing attitudes,
beliefs, values, and behavior. The act or ability to move by argument to a belief,
position, or course of action. To urge or convince (i.e. by using sound
arguments, or marketing strategies). Psychological factors
play an important role in persuasion. Anti-Turkish lobbies often enhance
their means of influence with appeals to emotion in order to capture
greater attention and stimulate a desire to act.
- Persuasive speech: A presentation whose message is designed to change or
influence the audience's opinion and/or behavior (it may also reinforce an
audience's thoughts, feelings, or actions). The audience might be
encouraged to see the world from the speaker's standpoint and to
understand issues from the speaker's perspective. The speaker may also
engage the audience in a discussion about an idea, concern, or plan of
- Plagiarism: The act of using other people's ideas or words
without acknowledging the source.
- Philanthropy: The practice of performing charitable or
benevolent actions. Love of mankind.
- Pluralism: The view that political power is and should be
dispersed among many elites that share a common acceptance of the rules of
- Plurality system: An electoral system in which, to win a seat
in parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only win the
most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast. A
greater number of votes than those of any other candidate, but not a
majority of the votes.
- Policy, policies: The goal that is to be achieved by an action or
series of actions undertaken by a government, political party, interest
group, or individual. The term is also used for the plan or program by
means of which a goal is reached.
- Policy formulation: Policymakers and their staffs deliberate
the pros and cons of each issue in a process that may take years to
- Policymaker: A person that makes policy.
- Political Action Committee (PAC's): A fund-raising independent organization that
can contribute money to the campaigns of candidates on behalf of corporations,
lobbies, unions, professional and trade associations, or
ideological causes. PAC's can be established by political candidates,
officeholders, corporations, or interest groups. Over 4,000 PAC's are the result of federal laws
from the 1970's that prohibited corporate contributions to candidates for
federal elections. These organizations, which are designed to raise and
spend money in support of candidates or party committees they support,
have been playing an important role in lobbying since the 1970's. The
purpose of PAC's is to influence legislation or executive agency
activities. The term PAC does not appear anywhere in federal
law. The formation of PAC's was encouraged by FECA law passed in 1971 that
allowed the establishment of multi-candidate committees. As a result of FECA, candidates were freed from financial
dependence on their parties, and through PAC's congressional candidates
could increasingly obtain funds from special interest groups. Foreign
multinationals can establish PAC's to finance campaigns and influence
politics. The role of PAC's in American politics is a controversial issue,
but many maintain that the range of PAC's reflects the diversity of
American society, and competition between them prevents the dominance of
any particular groups. Click here to
see contribution limits
- Political apathy: Lack of interest in politics; failure to vote and
participate in the political system (only about 50% of the American
electorate votes in recent presidential elections).
- Political consultant: An individual, trained in public
relations, media, or polling techniques, who advises candidates on
organizing their campaign.
- Political correctness (politically correct, PC): Avoiding forms
of expression or action that exclude, marginalize, or insult certain
racial or cultural groups (e.g.: in advertising). Critics see PC as a
means of suppressing legitimate debate and as a form of censorship because
public discussion of viewpoints is often limited in order to avoid
potentially offensive terminology, consequences, or public behaviour. PC
is a term that is used differently in various countries.
- Political culture: A set of values, beliefs, and traditions
about politics and government that are shared by most members of society
(though post-Sept. 11 the U.S. has been divided on many issues, political
culture in the U.S. includes faith in democracy, representative
government, freedom of speech, and individual rights).
- Political party: A group formed to field candidates for elective
office and to advance general or specific policies.
- Poll: The casting, recording, or counting of votes in an election.
Public opinion polls are a canvassing of a representative sample of a
large group of people on some question in order to determine the general
opinion of the group.
- Pollster: A person who conducts opinion polls.
- Population: All the persons inhabiting a country, city, or other
- Power: Ability or capacity to do something. Political, financial,
social, etc, force or influence. The exercise of control, authority, or
- Pre-emptive: To act in order to reduce or destroy an enemy's attacking
strength before it can use it.
- Prejudice: An opinion of a person or group formed beforehand, especially an unfavorable
one based on inadequate facts or a stereotype. Also refers to the intolerance of, or
dislike for, people of a specific race, religion, etc.
- Premise: An acceptable generalization for a particular context
or audience. A statement, or theory, that is assumed to be true for the
purpose of an argument from which a conclusion is drawn.
- Presentation aids (visual aids): Objects, pictures, graphs,
models, charts, video, audio, and multimedia, used alone and in
combination within the context of a speech. A "prop" is any object used
by a speaker as a presentation aid.
- Press agent: A PR specialist who that finds unusual news angles
and plans special events that attract media attention.
- Press clipping services: These services check newspapers,
magazines, and other publications (even network news and talkshows) on a
daily basis for coverage that is given to a company, institution or person
who hires this service. Many public relations firms use these services in
order to show their clients what they have accomplished. These services
are also useful for trend tracking.
- Press kit: Folder containing news releases, photographs, and
background information that is distributed to journalists and media
- Press release: A document of informational material, on a
recent or current event, that is distributed to broadcast stations,
newspapers, and magazines for public relations purposes.
- Pressure group: A group of people who seek to exert pressure on
legislators, public opinion, etc, in order to promote their own ideas,
agenda, and welfare.
- Primacy: The primacy of EU law over national law. Supremacy.
- Primary (primary election): In the U.S. a primary is a preliminary
election in which party members of a state select candidates to run for office. There are different types
of primaries such as open, direct, and closed (for example, in a closed primary
the most common, voters must
be members of a particular party in order to vote for its candidates).
- Private-sector: The part of a country's economy that consists of
privately owned enterprises.
- Private voluntary organization (PVO): Many NGO's prefer using
- Proactive: The act of taking initiative. Taking charge.
An approach in which future events can be planned for, and even managed,
as opposed to a reactive response to change (often seen during crisis
- Professional: Extremely competent in a job.
- Prohibition of return: A clause in the U.N. Convention on
refugees that bars member countries from returning refugees to countries
where their life or freedom would be threatened due to race, religion,
nationality or social or political affiliations.
- Propaganda: Propaganda is any organized or concerted
group effort or movement to spread a particular doctrine or a system of
doctrines or principles. Information is represented in such a way as to provoke
a desired response. Information and techniques
are intentionally and purposefully used
to promote a cause, or to injure or enhance the reputation of a group,
individual, or even a country. The information may distort the facts, or
may not tell the entire story, in order to suit the purposes of the sender
(propagandist). Propaganda is often spread through a systematic and
organized method of dissemination of selective information and/or
allegations, to assist or damage the cause of a government, a movement, or
for other motives. Propaganda is therefore a systematic attempt to
manipulate public opinion, attitudes, beliefs, and actions of people,
through the use of various methods. Propaganda is distinguished from
educating or informing because it is deliberate selectivity that can
include manipulation. Propaganda is sometimes referred to as public diplomacy, or
public affairs. Related terms: public diplomacy, public affairs,
public relations, persuasion, advertising, political campaigns, PR
campaigns, disinformation, misinformation, public opinion, mass
persuasion, mass media campaign, propaganda war, psychological
operations, pysops, information warfare.
- Proportional representation: The electoral system whereby
legislative seats are assigned to party candidates in proportion to the
percentage of the vote that the party receives in the election.
- Protocol: Formal diplomatic behavior.
- Public affairs: The dissemination of information, or conducting
PR activities, by government agencies or corporations. Public affairs is
also work done in the area of community relations. Public affairs seeks to
develop effective involvement in public policy and can help an
organization adapt to public expectations. Related terms: public
- Public dialogue: The civil exchange of ideas and opinions among
communities about topics that affect the public.
- Public diplomacy: Public diplomacy is made-up of
government-sponsored programs intended to inform or influence public
opinion in other countries (often with the use of films, cultural
exchanges, radio and television). Public diplomacy plays an important role in
foreign affairs, in supporting the foreign policies of a country, and in
safeguarding and advancing its interests. Official government efforts aim
to shape the communications environment around the world in order to
reduce the degree to which misperceptions and misunderstandings complicate
a countries relations with other nations. Public diplomacy is designed to
incite a particular reaction or action in the target audience. Central to
public diplomacy is the transnational flow of information and ideas,
usually one-way and informational, as in a mass media campaign. Public diplomacy
is sometimes called propaganda. Ministries of culture, as well as institutions such as the Alliance Francaise, British Council, Goethe Institute, Cervantes Instituto, can be
considered actors in public diplomacy. Related terms: propaganda, public
affairs, public relations, persuasion, advertising, political campaigns,
PR campaigns, disinformation, misinformation, public opinion, mass
persuasion, mass media campaign, propaganda war, psychological
operations, pysops, information warfare.
- Public funding: Government grants to candidates for campaign
purposes (it can be full or partial depending on whether they plan to
raise money). As allowed by election law, candidates can receive public funding for presidential primaries, nominating
conventions, and general elections. For the first time in 1996 public
funds were used in the U.S. to pay for some of the costs of presidential
primary and general election campaigns, with the money coming from
taxpayer' optional use of an income tax form checkoff setting aside $1 of
their payment for the campaign fund (but less than 30% regularly accept
the option). Also called public financing.
- Public good: The national interest. The public interest.
- Public interest: The common interests of the community
as a whole. Can be described as the national interest, or "the public
good." Some groups seek to make the political system more responsive to
the citizens of a country, and thus benefit the entire society.
- Public interest groups: These groups have arisen to
protect and represent the general "public interest," and tend to
be associated with the promotion of particular causes. They are counter balancing forces to lobbies which
many claim have made Congress a captive of interest groups. The aim of
public interest groups is to lobby for the
people. Public interest groups were present during the past two centuries,
however, they have been particularly active since the late 1960's. Their
objective is to benefit the larger society and not special interest groups (to
disprove that "everybody's organized but the
people"). Public interest groups have warned that special interests (many
whose aim is economic profit) exercise undue influence over governmental
decisions, and the lives of the powerless majority. Some well-known groups
have been Common Cause, and Ralph Nader groups under the umbrella of
Public Citizen Inc, which have focused on "clean government,"
accountability, consumer, environmental and social policy issues. In the
1980's conservative single-issue public interest groups became more active, such as the
National Right to Life Committee. The ACLU and NAACP are also public
interest groups since they do not operate for profit
and seek to advance the public
interest in civil rights and civil liberties. Many public interest groups desire to
represent groups or interests in society previously unrepresented, or
underrepresented in the political process. Analysts of the political
process point out that the federal budget is not sufficiently supporting
programs of public interest groups.
- Public office: Public officials are elected to public office.
- Public opinion: The attitude of the public, especially as a factor in
determining the actions of government.
- Public policy: Actions undertaken by officials in the public interest.
- Public relations (PR): The practice of creating,
promoting, or maintaining goodwill and a favorable image among the public
for an institution, country, product, organization, etc. The basic
components of public relations are: counseling management; researching
attitudes and behaviors; media relations; publicity; employee relations;
community relations; public affairs; government affairs; issues
management; financial relations; industry relations; fund-raising;
multicultural relations; special events; and marketing communications.
Related terms: corporate communications, public affairs, communication,
corporate relations, corporate public affairs, corporate marketing and
communications, public information, community relations, or media
- Public relations campaigns: A series of coordinated activities
designed to create a favorable image of a product, person, country, etc.
- Public sector: The public sector of the economy usually denotes
the combination of the central government, state-owned institutions,
including nationalized industries, public corporations and services provided by
- Public servant: An elected or appointed holder of a public office.
- Public service: Government employment. The management and
administration of the affairs of a political unit, especially the civil
- Public speaking: The art or practice of making speeches to large
audiences. A type of communication in which a
speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience who is
present during the delivery.
- Publicist: A person who deals exclusively with placement of
stories in the media. A person who publicizes something, especially a press or
- Publicity: Information about an event, individual,
group, product, or service, that appears as a news item or feature story
in the mass media (material is usually prepared by PR professionals).
Publicity is news, and should be free. Publicity is the technique, or process, of attracting public attention,
often by the use of the mass media. It is often also referred to as public relations, promotion,
and advertising. Publicity is a means of disseminating planned messages through selected media to
further the organization's interests.
- Publicity agent: The person who uses the technique or process of
attracting public attention.
- Publicize: To bring to public notice.
- Questionnaire: A written survey with a series of questions
designed to gather information from a large group of respondents.
- Quota: What is allocated to a person or group (example: immigrants
admitted to a country, or Turkish textile exports to the U.S.)
- Race: Candidates competing in an election are in a race (such as a presidential race).
Race also is defined as a group of people of common ancestry,
distinguished from others by physical characteristics.
- Race relations: The relations between members of two or more races,
especially within a single community.
- Racial profiling: A form of racism consisting of the alleged policy of
policemen who stop and search vehicles driven by persons belonging to
particular racial groups (also increasingly encountered during the
boarding of flights and other security checks)
- Racism: Hostility or antagonism based on skin color, national origin,
or religious affiliation. Another aspect of racism
belief that one race is superior to another.
- Ratify: To give formal approval or consent to.
- Reactive: A reactive response to an event, or
issue, usually emerges because initiative was not taken, and
individuals, organizations, or institutions are unprepared for change. A reactive approach
is one in which future events are not anticipated or managed, nor are
plans devised for a response to developments and changes (reactive
responses are often seen during crisis management).
- Realpolitik: Politics of realism, sometimes without regard to
moral values. A state's own interests. A ruthlessly realistic and
opportunist approach to statesmanship, rather than a moralistic approach.
There are a variety of other approaches to international relations such as,
multilateral, unilateral, isolationist, internationalist, and idealist.
- Reapportionment: The periodic redistribution of congressional
or legislative seats based on changing census figures.
- Reasoning: Logical explanation of a claim.
- Reelection: To run for elections, or to be elected, more than once.
- Referendum, referenda: A referendum is the submission of an
issue, or proposed measure, of public importance to the direct vote of the
electorate (it can be a particular law or idea put before
voters to decide). A referendum is a vote of the electorate on an issue of
public policy, such as a constitutional amendment (the vote may be binding
- Refugee: Any person living outside the country of their
nationality because of a "well-founded" fear that if they returned to that
country they would be persecuted on grounds of race, religion, nationality,
political affiliation or membership of a particular social group. The term also applies to people fleeing a country in
which they may not have been nationals, but which they would describe as a
place of "habitual residence." Among the universally recognised human rights
to which refugees are entitled under U.N. conventions are the right to life,
protection from torture and ill treatment, freedom of movement, and the
right to leave any country.
- Regulation: The rules of a federal, state, or municipal agency that
private organizations are required to satisfy to either operate or do
business with the government. Also defined as government oversight of
private business so as to achieve a social benefit, such as protecting
consumers or the environment.
- Relations: Social, political, or personal connections or dealings
between or among individuals, groups, nations, etc.
- Reliability: The degree to which an information source can be
- Represent: To act as or be the authorized delegate or agent for a
country, person, business, etc.
- Representative: A person that represent another or others. In
the U.S., a member of the House of Representatives.
- Resolution: A bill passed by the House or the Senate expressing
sentiments on political issues or personal matters, which does not have
the force of law.
- Resources: The means and tools which are the foundation of
success. Resources include financial strength, membership size, indirect
and direct support, political skills, organizational cohesiveness,
prestige, and the ability to access information.
- Rider: An amendment to a bill that may or may not relate to the
subject of the bill and that would have little chance of passing on its
- Right: A privilege or power to which a person is legitimately
entitled. Fundamental rights are basic rights that come before those
granted by a government or constitution and that cannot be taken from a
person, such as the right of self-defense.
- Right: Those holding conservative views and advocating limited
- Right-wing: A faction of a political organization that is to the
of the majority.
- Rules Committee: In both the House and Senate, these committees
set the rules and procedures for legislation coming to the floor. They are
responsible for determining the procedures under which most legislation is
debated and amended on the floor of the House of Representatives.
- Rural: Living in or accustomed to the countryside or farming areas.
- Sales presentation: An oral presentation that tries to lead a
potential buyer, or interested party, to purchase or use a service or
product described by the presenter.
- Seat: "a seat in office"
- Secularism: The belief that religion should have no place in civil
- Self-interest: One's personal interest or advantage. The act or an
instance of pursuing one's own interest, or on behalf of a group.
- Senate: The U.S. Senate consists of 2 members from each state,
chosen by popular vote for 6 years. Every two years one third of the
Senate faces re-election for a six-year term. Both the Senate and the House of
Representatives have Standing Committees to which all bills are referred.
The Senate has the power to ratify all treaties, and can reject or approve
- Senator: The U.S. Senate consists of 100 Senators. Two senators
represent each of the 50 states.
- Sentiment: Opinion or attitude.
- Single issue groups: These activist groups are organized to
lobby Congress for, or against, a single, or narrow range of issues, such
as abortion or gun control. Because they raise substantial funds for their
cause, they are able to unseat politicians who disagree with their cause.
- Skill: Special ability in a task, trade, or technique.
- Slander: Traditionally, "slander" was the oral defamation of character,
or injury by spoken word ("libel" was a printed falsehood). Today, there
is little difference and the term "defamation" is used as a collective
term. Defamation is any false statement about a person (or organization)
that creates public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or inflicts injury on
reputation. Related terms: free speech.
- Social movements: Collective actors in civil society
distinguished by mass mobilization or participation as their prime source
of social power, typically concerned to defend or change society, or
the relative position of a group within society. Social movements can be
seen as a major international actor after states and transnational
corporations. Despite their informal and spontaneous character, social
movements have been able to maximize their leverage by creating coalitions
with other movements and networks.
- Soft money: Contributions to organizations that are not
connected with a particular campaign, and not subject to most campaign
finance regulations. This money is therefore regulated by state laws, which
are often more lax than federal law. Soft money is money that is
raised and spent by organizations that are not tied directly to a
candidate and therefore are not subject to many regulations. Critics say
that due to soft money loopholes, regulations and
prohibitions are meaningless. As of 2002 national political parties are
banned from accepting or spending soft money (large, unlimited
contributions by corporations, unions, and individuals). Soft money
consists of funds used by national party committees to pay for the federal
portion of state and local party campaign expenses. Such campaign money
can be contributed directly to political parties for voter registration
and organization. State and local parties can accept up to 10,000 each
year per individual for getting out the vote and for voter registration
efforts in federal elections.
- Soft power: The power of ideas to achieve objectives not
usually obtainable by military force. It is the power to attract. Soft power has been described as a
means to get others to want what you want. The global reach of American
culture can enhance America's soft power.
- Solidarity: Unity of interests, sympathies, and goals.
- Sound bite: A brief, clear, concise statement that summarizes
key points in 20 seconds or less. A brief quote used in a broadcast news
- Source credibility: The degree to which a source of information
is perceived as reputable. The use of people who are competent and
trustworthy, have expertise, a good grasp of the subject, sound reasoning
skills, and the charisma needed to win acceptance from an audience.
- Speaker of the House: The Speaker is chosen by a vote of the
majority party and is the presiding officer of the House, the leader of
its majority party, and second in line to succeed the president.
- Special interest groups: Individuals, groups, or
organizations with particular points of view who seek specific goals, just as a lobby
does. Special interest groups seek to influence legislative or
government policy to further often narrowly defined interests. The use of
this term is often in a derogatory sense due to a belief that such groups
are more committed to their own goals than to the public good. Some
election reformers are dissatisfied because the system allows special
interests to influence public policy in ways that can be dangerous.
- Spin: Putting a positive light on events, or trying to convince
people to see things in a particular way. Sometimes called "damage
- State government: Each of the 50 states of the U.S. has three branches
of government--legislative, executive and judicial--just like the U.S.
federal government. Each of the 50 U.S. states has a two-house legislature (except Nebraska
which is unicameral), a governor and other executive officials, and a
judicial system, as well as its own constitution and local government.
The U.S. constitution was written in 1787, but because the 13 original colonies had governments before the U.S.
Constitution was ratified, not all states function in the same
manner. Like Congress, the state legislatures make laws for the state.
According to the federal Constitution, the states have powers that are not
granted to the federal government and that are not specifically denied to
them by the federal or state constitutions. Each state has a governor
elected by the people of the state. The governors term of office in
various states ranges from 2 to 4 years.
- State's rights: The theory that each state should have the
right to interpret federal laws to suit its individual needs.
- Stereotype: A standardized image or conception.
Oversimplified and distorted ideas. A stereotype
is usually a broad generalization about an entire group based on limited
knowledge, or limited exposure. A stereotype creates an
association, or suggests an idea or notion, often not flattering or true
of a group of people. Stereotyping usually takes place when assumptions
are made based upon such factors as race or gender.
- Strategy: A plan that attempts to identify the course of action
needed for achieving goals and success. Lobbying strategies
include proactive and counteractive strategies. Under a proactive
strategy, a group presents information in an effort to change a lawmaker's
policy position. Under a counteractive strategy, a lobby presents
information in an effort to prevent an opposing group from changing the
lawmaker's position. When a group selects a strategy, it must anticipate
what opposing groups will do. Strategies can focus on the accuracy of the
information presented by one side, and if their is evidence of the
misrepresentation of the facts. A good strategy should be able to uncover
and launch an investigation of any deliberate misrepresentation,
misleading claims, or unfounded allegations. Encouraging the public to
demand to know the sources of misleading information is in the interests
of a healthy democracy. The use of such strategies would reveal unreliable
lobbies, and discourage lobbyists from misrepresenting the facts because
they would be under greater scrutiny. Legislators who fail to verify
information would also be known. Negative publicity would also be
generated by the media regarding the lobbying group and lawmakers who may
have been deceived.
Strategist: A specialist or expert in strategy.
- Suffrage: The right to vote. Some one who is eligible to vote in the
election of a government is known as an elector.
- Supporting material: Ideas, opinions, and information that help
explain or advance an argument or presentation's key points and purpose.
- Survey: Also called a public opinion survey. It is often a canvassing
of a representative sample of a large group of people on some question in
order to determine the general opinion of the group.
- Swing voters: These are undecided voters who can support candidates from either
party. If there are a large number of swing voters in one state, that
state can be referred to as a "swing state" or "battleground state."
States that vote predominantly Republican, are known as a "red state" and
states that are predominantly Democratic are a "blue state."
States with a large number of swing voters can produce a significant
number of electoral votes and make a difference in presidential elections.
- Tactics: The planned use of skill or judgment in handling
difficult or delicate situations. Tactics are often part of a broad
- Talking points: Brief arguments that can be used when
discussing an issue.
- Target audience: People who should be influenced by a message
- Taxpayer: A person or organization that pays taxes or is liable to
- Tax-exempt status: In the U.S. there are about one
million non-profit organizations which do not pay tax and usually possess tax code numbers
527 or 501 (c)(3) and (4). Nonprofit financial statements disclose how
resources have been acquired and used to accomplish the non-profit's
objectives. They also disclose restrictions.
- Terrorism: An increasingly disturbing form of political activity by
which random violence is perpetrated against civilians and noncombatants
by radical groups who seek to bring down a government or to change
policies. It has been difficult for the international community to agree
on a definition of terrorism because one person's 'terrorist' may be
another's 'freedom fighter.'
- Testimony: Statement or opinions someone has said or written.
Firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both from
lay (non-expert) and from experts who are considered an authority in a
- The press: News media and agencies collectively, especially
newspapers. Good "press relations" are usually an important objective of
- The public: Society in general.
- The floor: Part of a legislative hall in which debate and other
business is conducted. To "get" or "have the floor" means to have the
right to speak in a legislative or deliberative body.
- Thesis statement: A statement that summarizes in a declarative
sentence the main argument, proposition, or assumption of a presentation.
It may be an unproved statement, especially one put forward as a premise
in an argument. The thesis statement is the central idea of a speech that
connects all the parts of the speech (the main points, supporting
material, and the conclusion).
- Think-tank: A group of specialists organized by a governmental body,
business enterprise, ideological group, etc, and commissioned to undertake
intensive study and research into specified problems and issues.
Think-tanks, or policy groups, often testify at congressional hearings.
- Ticket: A list of candidates, almost always from the same
party, who run for office as a team in the U.S.
- Timing: Regulating actions or remarks in relation to others to
produce the best effect.
- Trademark law: A "trademark" is a word, symbol, or slogan, used
singly or in combination, that identifies a product's origin.
- Trend: General tendency or direction. A predictable
sequence of events (in comparison to a one-time event). Seemingly
unrelated events can often have economic, social, and political
significance which trend trackers evaluate. Without an openness to new
ideas, myopia and subjectivity can lead to a failure to see trends or
paradigm shifts, resulting in inaction.
- Unilateralism: The policy of taking action independently in
foreign affairs, avoiding political or military alliances.
- Unlawful: Illegal. Not morally right or conventional.
- Urban: Relating to a city or town.
- Veto: Rejection of a proposal or legislation.
- Virtual: Simulation of the real thing. This term appears before
various computer terms to indicate simulation technology that enables you
to cross boundaries and experience something without needing its physical
- Voluntary: Performed, undertaken, or brought about by free choice,
willingly, and without compulsion.
- Volunteer: A person who willingly assists an
organization. The success of many non-profit organizations often depends
on the hard work of its volunteers. Non-profit leaders today have begun to
recruit and manage diverse groups of volunteers using new technologies.
- Vote: An indication of choice, opinion, or will on a question, such as
the choosing of a candidate, by or as if by some recognized means such as
a ballot. For more information on voting and US presidential elections
- Voter: A person who can or does vote.
- War Powers Resolution: A U.S. law passed in 1973 by Congress
asserting congressional authority over the power of the president to order
hostile military action (in response to the conduct of the Vietnam War).
- Watchdogs: Groups that monitor governmental agencies and
sometimes lobby on behalf of the general public. These groups can function as "public interest
groups" or as a "citizens' group" that seeks to further the collective good without benefiting their
own members. Individuals who uncover violations of regulations, or
unacceptable behavior, are often called "whistle blowers."
Ethnic groups, lobbies, anti-defamation organizations, and minorities have also created watchdog groups to monitor
the media, legislative issues, competing interest groups, etc. in order to defend their interests. An
example of an international watchdog body is
the United Nations atomic watchdog agency, known as The International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA).
Washington, D.C.: The letters "D.C." stand for
District of Columbia. The district is located in the northeastern United
States, and includes Capitol Hill where the main building (the Capitol)
which contains both houses of Congress is located. Interstate 495, known
as the "Beltway," is the highway that surrounds Washington, D.C. The
District of Columbia
is not one of the 50 state's of the U.S., and it should not be confused
with Washington State (whose state capital is Olympia) and which is
located in the western region of America.
- Xenophobia: Hatred or fear of foreigners, or their politics, or
- Zionism: The basic idea of Zion is an ancient Jewish tradition,
however Zionism emerged in the late 19th-century. It was created by
secular intellectuals who rebelled against traditional Judaism (which
taught that Jews had been exiled from Jerusalem as divine punishment for
their sins) as a political movement for the establishment and support of a
national homeland for Jews in Palestine. Zionism is also known as a policy
of nationalism and as a movement for Jews to return to Palestine from the
Diaspora. This policy was supported by politically and financially
powerful Jewish lobbies in Western countries. Zionism is now concerned chiefly with the development of the modern
state of Israel. It can also refer to the internal politics of Israel.
* Some of the
definitions above are attributed to The Statesman's Yearbook edited
by Barry Turner,
and to American
Government by Peter Woll & Sidney E. Zimmerman, McGraw Hill, Inc.