TURKISH LOBBY ISSUES:
issues Turkish Lobbies are involved in CLICK HERE
Regarding term projects there are 3
components to influence:
KEY POINTS FOR ADVOCACY:
What can we do about an issue we care about?
§ Speak out.
§ Provide facts, and "how to" information.
§ Be active.
§ Be educated and informed.
§ Get the facts to the media, to elected officials, to college campuses, etc.
Activist: A self-motivated person who is
strongly committed to a cause, or political party, and takes vigorous action
on its behalf. Grassroots activism is a pillar of civil society and a
means for lobbies to advance their interests. Related term: citizen
Grassroots: The power of ordinary people in influencing their political leaders. When average citizens seek to express their views by contacting their representatives about issues of public concern (often individuals are urged to do so by grassroots lobbying activities). Grassroots lobbying is an attempt through collective action to influence legislation and/or to affect the opinions of the general public. Related terms: Grassroots lobbying, grassroots activism, grassroots mobilization.
Lobby: (used as a verb) "To lobby" means to apply pressure, present arguments, or other incentives to try to make a political decision-maker favor the position of the lobby. "To lobby" means to try to influence or convince lawmakers or governmental bodies to take a specific action.
Lobby: (used as a noun) As a noun, a "lobby" is an organized collection of people with similar concerns who join together for the purpose of influencing government policy. Many of these groups seek to promote legislation, or political action, or to change public opinion in order to promote their own ideas, interests, agenda, and welfare. Targets of these lobbying groups often include the general public, legislative lobbying, or media lobbying. Related terms: special interest groups, ethnic lobbies.
One definition of lobbying is limited to direct attempts to influence lawmakers by direct contact and face-to-face meetings with lawmakers in order to influence the passage or defeat of legislation. Another definition of lobbying includes indirect attempts, such as grassroots pressure and mobilization, coalition building, advertising, public relations, the use of mass media, and electronic lobbying. The most effective type of lobbying is all-directional lobbying, or multiple-target advocacy and pressure (a combination of direct influence and targeting the public arena). This requires interrelated strategies. A “lobbyist” is a person, or firm, that is employed by a particular interest to advocate a specific policy, measure, or point of view to an elected lawmaker or governmental body. Hired lobbyists, public relations firms, and grassroots movements all participate in lobbying for the purpose of influencing government policy and public opinion.
Media advocacy (issue advocacy): Media advocacy seeks to use the media to influence public opinion and generate public awareness of an issue, cause, or matter of particular concern to an individual, group, or organization (the issue is often a subject of controversy). Media advocacy is the strategic use of media as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Media advocacy can also be called issue advocacy.
Non-governmental organization (NGO): An organization (often led by volunteers) with no fundamental ties to government which seeks to meet human and social needs, whose primary goal is not commercial.
Non-profit organization: An organization,
foundation or endowment, whose activities are not for the purpose of making
a profit. Non-profits play a vital role in fulfilling community needs that
are not met by commercial enterprises (private sector) or governmental
entities (public sector). Leaders and staff are often non-paid volunteers.
These organizations may be entirely funded by voluntary donations.
THE PROBLEM OF STEREOTYPES
●P R & IMAGE MAKING
Stereotype: A standardized image or conception. Oversimplified and distorted ideas. A stereotype is usually a broad generalization about an entire group based on limited knowledge, or limited exposure. A stereotype creates an association, or suggests an idea or notion, often not flattering or true of a group of people. Stereotyping usually takes place when assumptions are made based upon race or sex. (Example, political cartoons are very difficult to create without ethnic and racial stereotypes).
non-objective, subjective opinion. An opinion of a person or group formed
beforehand, especially an unfavorable one based on inadequate facts or a
stereotype. Prejudice also refers to the intolerance of, or dislike for,
people of a specific race, religion, or other group.
A belief that one race
is superior to another.
Disinformation: Purposefully incorrect information. Information and material that is based on falsehoods and untruths. The deliberate falsification of information. Related term: misinformation.
correct, PC): Avoiding forms of expression
or action that exclude, marginalize, or insult certain racial or cultural
groups (e.g.: in advertising). Critics see PC as a means of suppressing
legitimate debate and as a form of censorship because public discussion of
viewpoints is often limited in order to avoid potentially offensive
terminology, consequences, or public behavior. PC is a term that is used
differently in various countries.
Ethnocentrism: The belief that one's own ethnic, religious, or political group is superior to all others.
Demagogue: A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing.
Xenophobia: Hatred or fear of foreigners, or their politics, or culture.
The practice of creating, promoting, or
maintaining goodwill and a favourable image among the public for an
institution, country, product, organization, etc. Public relations campaigns
are a series of coordinated activities designed to create a favorable image.
Advertising: The use of Ads / advertisements and advertising techniques which create publicity. An effective tool of lobbyists. Announcements, documentaries, brochures, DVDs, etc., are used by advertising agencies for PR and to make political issues publicly known.
Public opinion: The general attitude of the public.
Watchdogs: Ethnic groups, lobbies, anti-defamation organizations, and minorities often create organizations to monitor the media, legislative issues, competing interest groups, etc. in order to defend their interests. Watchdog groups also monitor governmental agencies and sometimes lobby on behalf of the general public (these groups can function as "public interest groups" or as a "citizens' group" that seek to further the collective good without benefiting their own members). Individuals who uncover violations of regulations, or unacceptable behavior, are often called "whistle blowers."
NOTE: Laws, codes of ethics, and social responsibility regulate how the activities above are conducted in different political systems & countries around the world (which regulate lobbying laws, NGO's and interest groups, contributions to political campaigns & candidates, defamation laws, ethics in advertising, editorial policy in journalism, and restrictions on freedom of speech). For further information on "Lobbying" definitions CLICK HERE
LOBBYING & ADVOCACY ISSUES
Students should become familiar with the common techniques and activities of various lobbying and advocacy groups, with attention given to ethnic lobbies and "anti-Turkey lobbies" to better understand how they have an impact on policy making and public opinion. Examining these activities will help students understand the efforts and activities of worldwide Turkish lobbying groups. Students should strive to develop their critical thinking skills, research and analytical abilities, in order to be effective problem solvers on matters that concern Turkish lobbies, Turkish citizens, Turkey, and global civil society.
Some issues to keep in mind when addressing subjects of concern to Turkish lobbies:
●Improving Turkey's image abroad.
Creating a fairer image of Turkey, and countering
disinformation about Turkey.
REVIEW OF HOW SUCCESSFUL LOBBIES OPERATE
●Members are committed and united behind their cause.
●They are well funded, and have a wide-range of resources. They also conduct successful fund-raising campaigns.
●They understanding of how political and legal systems operate.
●Mass membership lobbies are large, and have the ability to make their votes count.
●They are able to provide substantial contributions and support to candidates, such as to congressmen and senators, before, during, and after elections.
●They know how to initiate, support, or defeat proposed laws.
●They know how to mobilize grassroots support.
●They can provide and offer “expertise” and specialized information to decision-makers. Leaders and staff usually have a very good command of languages.
●They have time-tested formulas, and decades of experience.
●Members are well integrated into societies.
●Members have regular face-to-face meetings with policymakers.
●Lobby leaders help to ensure that members of their lobbies hold prestigious & influential positions in important organizations, political parties, universities, the media, in the business world, and are well represented in all professional fields.
●Members and activists are highly motivated, and keep supporters committed.
●They sponsor conferences, exhibitions, symposiums, seminars, and produce many publications, books, films, and documentaries.
●They organize many international business and trade fairs. Monitor economic issues. Send trade delegations. Attend conventions.
●They Devise long-term and short-term lobbying strategies, at local, state and federal levels.
●They accurately assess what makes the lobby successful, and evaluate what does not work in the interests of the lobby.
●They build coalitions, with other groups that share similar interests.
●They use networking through church, other institutions, and membership associations.
●They can quickly disseminate information, PR material, and voice their opinions.
●They can effectively use lobbying tools, such as media advocacy, press releases, newsletters, publicity, advertising, marketing, and public relations.
●They are successful in library & information management, and know how to have an impact on educational systems, curriculum, textbooks, and library collections.
●They can use psychological tools, myths, or inaccurate historical claims, to unite the lobby, ensure its survival, socialize the next generation, and find common purpose among members.
●They know how to educate their children to be successful lobbyists, activists, and supporters of their causes.
●They monitor the local, national, and worldwide media.
●They keep detailed legislative records on each congressmen, senator, and EU parliamentarians.
●They issue “Action Alerts,” or “Calls to Action.” Hold rallies & demonstrations.
●They have well designed organizational infrastructures that can adapt to their needs, to evolving or unexpected events, and to change. They are proactive, rather than reactive.
●They know how to effectively use the latest technologies, databases, email lists, and web sites.
●They can rapidly coordinate international activities and communications.
complex and multi-directional lobbying activities include: analysis
of the lobby’s image, analysis of public opinion, analysis of lobbying
activities, analysis of current issues and past congressional voting
records, providing congressional testimony, involvement in local municipal
affairs, legislative & regulatory monitoring at the state level, fighting
defamation (slander and libel), fighting discrimination, creating award
programs & speakers programs, providing legal assistance, media outreach,
polling, research, training and technical assistance.
●"Ethnic lobbies" try to mobilize support to defend the interests of the country of their origin. They also seek to bolster the security of the country of their origin.
●"Ethnic lobbies" may support U.S. arms sales & aid to the country of their origin.
●"Ethnic lobbies" advise on U.S. foreign policy and initiatives (on U.S. relations with Turkey, Eurasia, the Middle East, terrorism policies, relations with Iran, and the security situation in Iraq).
●"Ethnic lobbies" work to protect their heritage and their identity.
●"Ethnic lobbies" highlight the shared history & traditions between American or European societies and the country of their origin.
●"Ethnic lobbies" protect the rights of people who are of their ethnic descent/ancestry.
●"Ethnic lobbies" serve the needs of their ethnic community (i.e. immigration counselling).
●"Ethnic lobbies" ensure electoral participation, voter registration, voter mobilization and education.
●"Ethnic lobbies" closely monitor media and public opinion bias towards their ethnic group.
●"Ethnic lobbies" are involved in electoral politics. They promote service in public and political life through technical and financial support for members of their communities.
●"Ethnic lobbies" are involved in interfaith dialogue between communities, and improving race relations.
Types of NGO/non-profits organizations: arts & humanities, cultural,
educational, environmental, health, international, public policy, religious,
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