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Topic A
Language &
Citizenship Test

Articles in ENGLISH

Articles in Turkish / TÜRKÇE

Articles in French / FRANÇAIS

Proposed Language Restrictions




Topic B

Articles in ENGLISH

Articles in Turkish / TÜRKÇE

Articles in French / FRANÇAIS

Alliance of Civilizations
Medeniyetler İttifakı


TURKISH LOBBY ISSUES: For other issues Turkish Lobbies are involved in CLICK HERE


By using real-world examples and by selecting an issue that is a subject of controversy, students will understand how issue advocacy can generate public awareness of an issue that is of concern to an individual, group, organization, or society.

Regarding term projects there are 3 components to influence:
--The Message (your goal)
--The Target (your audience)
--The Tools (the method of your operation, forms of communication)

Students must be able to define key concepts which are underlined in the English-Turkish “Glossary" section of Lobicilik.com web site.
Students must also acquire a basic understanding of how advocacy groups & lobbies operate by visiting web sites in the "Links" section of Lobicilik.com )

Objectives include:
how individuals and groups in a democracy have an impact on shaping policies & societies;
Understanding the role of civil society, the public interest, and the need for collective action in order to work for a common purpose;
Understanding the impact effective communications has on lobbying and civil society;
the role lobbying and issue advocacy play in foreign & domestic policy formulation, in the election process, and in representing business & other interests;
Applying concepts to problem solving strategies.
Keep in mind:

What is advocacy?
What is lobbying?
What are some activities lobbies are involved in?
What makes a lobby strong / weak?
Can you define the underlined terms and concepts in the glossary?
What are some issues Turkish lobbies are concerned with?
What are some issues other lobbies are concerned with?
Define “influence”
What are some effective forms of communication?
What makes a position, viewpoint, proposal, opinion, or argument convincing?
What makes a person or organization believable and persuasive?


 What can we do about an issue we care about?

§       Speak out.

§       Provide facts, and "how to" information.

§       Be active.

§       Be educated and informed.

§       Get the facts to the media, to elected officials, to college campuses, etc.


The act of arguing in favor of a particular point of view, or action. Advocacy means being a voice on issues that matter to people. Lobbying is sometimes defined as advocacy of a point of view, either by groups or individuals. An “advocate” is someone who gives active support and who argues in favor of a particular cause, course of action, or set of beliefs.

Activist: A self-motivated person who is strongly committed to a cause, or political party, and takes vigorous action on its behalf. Grassroots activism is a pillar of civil society and a means for lobbies to advance their interests. Related term: citizen activists.

Civics: The study of the roles, rights, responsibilities of citizenship and government. Citizenship education.

Civil society (civil society institutions): Autonomous institutions representing organized groups that are voluntarily organized by society, which come together to advance their common interests through collective action. Related terms: Global civil society.

Code of ethics: The culture of an organization is determined by the collective and individual acts of each person. The values, fairness, and ethnical conduct of a person, or organization, will determine the success of that organization, as members, volunteers, staff and the community must be able to place their trust in that organization. Codes of ethics for the U.S. Congress and E.U. institutions are presently being debated, along with reforms and new regulations for lobbyists.

Grassroots: The power of ordinary people in influencing their political leaders. When average citizens seek to express their views by contacting their representatives about issues of public concern (often individuals are urged to do so by grassroots lobbying activities). Grassroots lobbying is an attempt through collective action to influence legislation and/or to affect the opinions of the general public. Related terms: Grassroots lobbying, grassroots activism, grassroots mobilization.

Lobby: (used as a verb) "To lobby" means to apply pressure, present arguments, or other incentives to try to make a political decision-maker favor the position of the lobby. "To lobby" means to try to influence or convince lawmakers or governmental bodies to take a specific action.

Lobby: (used as a noun) As a noun, a "lobby" is an organized collection of people with similar concerns who join together for the purpose of influencing government policy. Many of these groups seek to promote legislation, or political action, or to change public opinion in order to promote their own ideas, interests, agenda, and welfare. Targets of these lobbying groups often include the general public, legislative lobbying, or media lobbying. Related terms: special interest groups, ethnic lobbies.

One definition of lobbying is limited to direct attempts to influence lawmakers by direct contact and face-to-face meetings with lawmakers in order to influence the passage or defeat of legislation. Another definition of lobbying includes indirect attempts, such as grassroots pressure and mobilization, coalition building, advertising, public relations, the use of mass media, and electronic lobbying. The most effective type of lobbying is all-directional lobbying, or multiple-target advocacy and pressure (a combination of direct influence and targeting the public arena). This requires interrelated strategies. A “lobbyist” is a person, or firm, that is employed by a particular interest to advocate a specific policy, measure, or point of view to an elected lawmaker or governmental body. Hired lobbyists, public relations firms, and grassroots movements all participate in lobbying for the purpose of influencing government policy and public opinion.

Media advocacy (issue advocacy): Media advocacy seeks to use the media to influence public opinion and generate public awareness of an issue, cause, or matter of particular concern to an individual, group, or organization (the issue is often a subject of controversy). Media advocacy is the strategic use of media as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Media advocacy can also be called issue advocacy.

Non-governmental organization (NGO): An organization (often led by volunteers) with no fundamental ties to government which seeks to meet human and social needs, whose primary goal is not commercial.

Non-profit organization: An organization, foundation or endowment, whose activities are not for the purpose of making a profit. Non-profits play a vital role in fulfilling community needs that are not met by commercial enterprises (private sector) or governmental entities (public sector). Leaders and staff are often non-paid volunteers. These organizations may be entirely funded by voluntary donations.

Public interest groups: Groups which protect and represent the general "public interest." They are counter balancing forces to special interest groups.

Advertising (advertising agency)
Advocacy (advocacy group, advocate)
Citizen groups
Common good
Constituent(s), (constituency)
Contribution (donation)
Defamation (libel, slander)
Disinformation (misinformation)
Image (image-making/ building)
Influence (persuasion)
Interest group (special interest group)
Issue/media advocacy
Marketing (marketing communications)
Mass communication(s)

Mass media
Mobilization (mobilizing)
Non-governmental organization (NGO)
Non-profit organization
Pressure group
Public diplomacy
Public good (public interest)
Public opinion
Public policy
Public relations (PR)
Public speaking
Social movements
Voluntary (volunteer)
Watchdog groups



Stereotype: A standardized image or conception. Oversimplified and distorted ideas. A stereotype is usually a broad generalization about an entire group based on limited knowledge, or limited exposure. A stereotype creates an association, or suggests an idea or notion, often not flattering or true of a group of people. Stereotyping usually takes place when assumptions are made based upon race or sex. (Example, political cartoons are very difficult to create without ethnic and racial stereotypes).

Prejudice: A biased, non-objective, subjective opinion. An opinion of a person or group formed beforehand, especially an unfavorable one based on inadequate facts or a stereotype. Prejudice also refers to the intolerance of, or dislike for, people of a specific race, religion, or other group.

Unfair treatment of a person, racial group, minority, or other group. Discrimination is action based on prejudice.

Intolerance for the beliefs of others. Such a person can be called a bigot.

Racism: A belief that one race is superior to another.

Information which is used to promote a cause, or to injure or enhance the reputation of a group, individual, or even a country. The information may distort the facts, or may not tell the entire story, in order to suit the purposes of the propagandist. Information is presented in such a way as to provoke a desired response.  Propaganda is often spread through a systematic and organized method of dissemination of information and allegations, to assist or damage the cause of a government, a movement, or for other motives. Propaganda is a systematic attempt to manipulate public opinion, attitudes, beliefs, and actions of people, through the use of these various methods. Propaganda is distinguished from educating or informing because it is deliberate selectivity and manipulation. Propaganda is sometimes referred to as public diplomacy, or public affairs.

Disinformation: Purposefully incorrect information. Information and material that is based on falsehoods and untruths. The deliberate falsification of information. Related term: misinformation.

Political correctness (politically correct, PC): Avoiding forms of expression or action that exclude, marginalize, or insult certain racial or cultural groups (e.g.: in advertising). Critics see PC as a means of suppressing legitimate debate and as a form of censorship because public discussion of viewpoints is often limited in order to avoid potentially offensive terminology, consequences, or public behavior. PC is a term that is used differently in various countries.

Defamation: Defamation is any false statement about a person or people (or organization) that creates public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or inflicts injury on reputation or good name. Injury by attack or accusation can be caused by two forms of defamation: “libel” and “slander.” Libel” involves print & publishing of a falsehood that harms someone. “Slander” is applies to the spoken word. Collectively, “slander & libel” are referred to as “defamation.”

A person filing a “defamation suit” (taking legal action) usually must prove that:
(1) the false statement was communicated to others through print, broadcast, or electronic means;
(2) the person was identified or is identifiable;
(3) there is actual injury in the form of money losses, loss of reputation, or mental suffering; and
(4) the person making the statement was malicious or negligent.

To counter and prevent an attack to a person's good name or reputation (group or organization). To fight libel and slander. When considering defamation cases, courts also take into consideration the other party’s right to “freedom of speech.”

Immigrant: Broadly defined as anyone who enters a country other than their native country with the intention of settling there. In practice, the term encompasses a wide range of non-native people who reside in a country, either legally or illegally.

Ethnocentrism: The belief that one's own ethnic, religious, or political group is superior to all others.

Demagogue: A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing.

Xenophobia: Hatred or fear of foreigners, or their politics, or culture.

Public relations (PR): The practice of creating, promoting, or maintaining goodwill and a favourable image among the public for an institution, country, product, organization, etc. Public relations campaigns are a series of coordinated activities designed to create a favorable image.
PR Related terms: public affairs, public information, community relations, media relations, corporate relations, corporate public affairs, corporate communications, corporate marketing and communications…

Advertising: The use of Ads / advertisements and advertising techniques which create publicity. An effective tool of lobbyists. Announcements, documentaries, brochures, DVDs, etc., are used by advertising agencies for PR and to make political issues publicly known.

Public opinion: The general attitude of the public.

Watchdogs: Ethnic groups, lobbies, anti-defamation organizations, and minorities often create organizations to monitor the media, legislative issues, competing interest groups, etc. in order to defend their interests. Watchdog groups also monitor governmental agencies and sometimes lobby on behalf of the general public (these groups can function as "public interest groups" or as a "citizens' group" that seek to further the collective good without benefiting their own members). Individuals who uncover violations of regulations, or unacceptable behavior, are often called "whistle blowers."

NOTE:  Laws, codes of ethics, and social responsibility regulate how the activities above are conducted in different political systems & countries around the world (which regulate lobbying laws, NGO's and interest groups, contributions to political campaigns & candidates, defamation laws, ethics in advertising, editorial policy in journalism, and restrictions on freedom of speech).  For further information on "Lobbying" definitions CLICK HERE


Students should become familiar with the common techniques and activities of various lobbying and advocacy groups, with attention given to ethnic lobbies and "anti-Turkey lobbies" to better understand how they have an impact on policy making and public opinion. Examining these activities will help students understand the efforts and activities of worldwide Turkish lobbying groups. Students should strive to develop their critical thinking skills, research and analytical abilities, in order to be effective problem solvers on matters that concern Turkish lobbies, Turkish citizens, Turkey, and global civil society.

Some issues to keep in mind when addressing subjects of concern to Turkish lobbies:

 ●Improving Turkey's image abroad. Creating a fairer image of Turkey, and countering disinformation about Turkey.
●Defining lobbying needs.
 ●Raising awareness of lobbying needs. 
 ●Monitoring news coverage of Turkey & Turks living abroad.
 ●Monitoring & responding to anti-Turkish lobbying activities.
●Helping to resolve problems encountered by Turks living abroad, such as integration or discrimination.
●Learning from powerful & successful lobbies, such as the Jewish, Armenian & Greek lobbies.
●Monitoring concerns of European public opinion, politicians, opinion leaders, and decision-makers, regarding Turkey’s EU entry.
Monitoring concerns of Turkey about EU & US relations.
How Turkey is viewed from the USA?
How Turkey is viewed in the region, and in Eurasia?
Alleged Armenian Diaspora genocide allegations.
●So-called “clash of civilizations” versus “dialogue of civilizations.”
 ●Greek-Turkish relations.
●Resolving the Cyprus dispute.
Azeri-Armenian-Turkish relations.
Financing & PKK networks in Europe & in the region.
International Terrorism.
Relations with neighboring countries, such as Iran, Russia, and Black Sea nations.
●Reform in the Islamic world.
 ●Turkish-Israeli relations.
Turkey's relations with the Arab-Muslim world.
Turkey's leadership role in the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
Relations with the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Turkic world.
Economic issues related to Turkey.
Impact of globalization.
Turkey's security & national interests.
●Common interests & conflicts of interest.
Secularism & Turkey.
Democracy & Reform in Turkey.
Human rights and the rule of law.
 ●Conflicts between modernity and tradition.
●US-led “Broader Middle East & North Africa Project” / Democracy building in the Middle East & Eurasia
   (also called the “Greater Middle East Initiative,” or BOP, Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi).
 ●Incirlik airbase.
Problems in the Aegean and Bosphorus.
●The security situation in Iraq.
Strategic issues & foreign policy.
The future of the UN and NATO.
●Support for NGO’s, civil society, advocacy, and citizen participation.
 ●Enhancing communication in order to better understand the needs of Turkish society and to build a secure, prosperous Turkey.
 ●Building an informed & active Turkish lobby.


See UNIT 5

Hispanic lobby: Issues of concern to the & Hispanic Congressional Caucus & advocacy groups (click here)
African-American lobby: Issues of concern to the & Black Congressional Caucus & advocacy groups (click here)
Albanian lobby: Issues of concern to the Albanian lobby & advocacy groups (click here)
Pro-Israel/Jewish lobby: Issues of concern to the Pro-Israel/Jewish lobby & advocacy groups (click here)
Armenian lobby: Issues of concern to the Armenian lobby & advocacy groups (click here)

They are well organized.

Members are committed and united behind their cause.

They are well funded, and have a wide-range of resources. They also conduct successful fund-raising campaigns.

They understanding of how political and legal systems operate.

Mass membership lobbies are large, and have the ability to make their votes count.

They are able to provide substantial contributions and support to candidates, such as to congressmen and senators, before, during, and after elections.

They know how to initiate, support, or defeat proposed laws.

They know how to mobilize grassroots support.

They can provide and offer “expertise” and specialized information to decision-makers. Leaders and staff usually have a very good command of languages.

They have time-tested formulas, and decades of experience.

Members are well integrated into societies.

Members have regular face-to-face meetings with policymakers.

Lobby leaders help to ensure that members of their lobbies hold prestigious & influential positions in important organizations, political parties, universities, the media, in the business world, and are well represented in all professional fields.

Members and activists are highly motivated, and keep supporters committed.

They sponsor conferences, exhibitions, symposiums, seminars, and produce many publications, books, films, and documentaries.

They organize many international business and trade fairs. Monitor economic issues. Send trade delegations. Attend conventions.

They Devise long-term and short-term lobbying strategies, at local, state and federal levels.

They accurately assess what makes the lobby successful, and evaluate what does not work in the interests of the lobby.

They build coalitions, with other groups that share similar interests.

They use networking through church, other institutions, and membership associations.

They can quickly disseminate information, PR material, and voice their opinions.

They can effectively use lobbying tools, such as media advocacy, press releases, newsletters, publicity, advertising, marketing, and public relations.

They are successful in library & information management, and know how to have an impact on educational systems, curriculum, textbooks, and library collections.

They can use psychological tools, myths, or inaccurate historical claims, to unite the lobby, ensure its survival, socialize the next generation, and find common purpose among members.

They know how to educate their children to be successful lobbyists, activists, and supporters of their causes.

They monitor the local, national, and worldwide media.

They keep detailed legislative records on each congressmen, senator, and EU parliamentarians.

They issue “Action Alerts,” or “Calls to Action.” Hold rallies & demonstrations.

They have well designed organizational infrastructures that can adapt to their needs, to evolving or unexpected events, and to change. They are proactive, rather than reactive.

They know how to effectively use the latest technologies, databases, email lists, and web sites.

They can rapidly coordinate international activities and communications.

Other complex and multi-directional lobbying activities include: analysis of the lobby’s image, analysis of public opinion, analysis of lobbying activities, analysis of current issues and past congressional voting records, providing congressional testimony, involvement in local municipal affairs, legislative & regulatory monitoring at the state level, fighting defamation (slander and libel), fighting discrimination, creating award programs & speakers programs, providing legal assistance, media outreach, polling, research, training and technical assistance.

"Ethnic lobbies" seek to maintain and improve relations, friendship, and goodwill between the U.S. and the country of their origin.

"Ethnic lobbies" try to mobilize support to defend the interests of the country of their origin. They also seek to bolster the security of the country of their origin.

"Ethnic lobbies" may support U.S. arms sales & aid to the country of their origin.

"Ethnic lobbies" advise on U.S. foreign policy and initiatives (on U.S. relations with Turkey, Eurasia, the Middle East, terrorism policies, relations with Iran, and the security situation in Iraq).

"Ethnic lobbies" work to protect their heritage and their identity.

"Ethnic lobbies" highlight the shared history & traditions between American or European societies and the country of their origin.

●"Ethnic lobbies" protect the rights of people who are of their ethnic descent/ancestry.

●"Ethnic lobbies" serve the needs of their ethnic community (i.e. immigration counselling).

●"Ethnic lobbies" ensure electoral participation, voter registration, voter mobilization and education.

●"Ethnic lobbies" closely monitor media and public opinion bias towards their ethnic group.

●"Ethnic lobbies" are involved in electoral politics. They promote service in public and political life through technical and financial support for members of their communities.

●"Ethnic lobbies" are involved in interfaith dialogue between communities, and improving race relations.


Lobbying & Advocacy : Common Activities of Interest Groups

Mission: vision & goals
Case statement & proposal

Identify issues/brainstorming, etc

Planning team & human resources

Research & compile the facts to make your case & position

Know your audience, supporters, & people you serve

Design sound organizational infrastructure (Board, staff, spokesman, legal counsel…)

Learn vocabulary & jargon

Target areas of influence

Choose strategies & tactics

Set policy agenda

Materials &equipment

Location and space

Board members take key decisions & initiatives advocating organization’s public policy positions (elected?)

Organization type: NGO, non-profit, citizen group, public interest…see site Glossary “civil society”  (1)

Fund-raising.  Sponsors.
Seed money (start-up funding, plans for an endowment campaign etc)

Volunteer & staff management

Timetable and timing

Build your base of supporters

Issue & media advocacy

Grassroots lobbying

Grassroots mobilization

Professional training, recruitment, interns, technical assistance, consultants, advisors

Budget & operating expenses

Accounting (transparency, financial accountability, tax exempt status…)

Databases & record keeping

Web site building

Networking: access & info

Mailing lists (vertical and horizontal), telemarketing, door-to-door

Electronic tools & coordinating communications

Internet resources

Identify interests groups who may be potential allies (local, regional, nationwide)

Publicity plan & campaign (press kits & press releases)

Marketing & promoting your plan or organization (advertising, photos, brochures, information dissemination)

Public relations

Media relations

Press conferences

Educate potential supporters

Business to business press/news (trade journals)

Sales presentation

Build credibility (why are you different? Why should you be trusted?)

Maintaining your image & long-term image building

Code of ethics and culture of your organization (values, public trust, fairness in your operations, ethical conduct)

Special events (exhibits, panels, awards, debates…)

Pubic education and awareness

Teacher training materials

Communications & public speaking

Lobby legislatorsdirectly/indirectly

Research opposing viewpoints

Monitor issues & legislation

Initiate, support, or defeat bills

Shaping public policy

Trend tracking

Provide expertise to decision-makers

Keep people committed and motivated

Crisis management & response

Coalition building & coordinating lobbying with informal allies (think-tanks, universities, unions…  (2)

Building relationships with governmental agencies & institutions

Building relationships with donors (contributors, sponsors, corporate, private foundations…)

"Calls to Action"

Sending “Issue Alerts” to the public, newsletters, updates

Reviewing lobbying laws/ reporting lobbying activity

Empowerment campaigns

Outreach programs

Relationships with Watchdogs

Create a focus group

Public affairs

Evaluating progress (strengths, weaknesses, success…)

Conduct a survey/poll of client attitudes or public opinion

Social movements (rallies, petition gathering signatures)

Other opportunities…
Additional tools

(1) Types of NGO/non-profits organizations: arts & humanities, cultural, educational, environmental, health, international, public policy, religious, social services.
(2) Potential advocacy allies & contributors: companies, automotive industry, banks, transport, unions, pharmaceuticals, beverage industry, food distributors/producers, insurance, law, media, oil & gas printing, publishing, sports, textiles, accountants, doctors, dentists, association members, colleagues, volunteers, community leaders, donors to other groups, entertainment industry, farmers, foundations, hospitality & travel industry, land developers, older people, politicians, places of worship, professions, real estate, retailers, alumni, clubs.


Suggested Reading

1) "Lobicilik" 
By Müjde Ker Dincer 
Published by ALFA Basım Yayım Dağıtım 1999
Cağaloğlu, İstanbul - TURKEY

2) "Amerikada Siyasal Yapı Lobiler ve Dış Politika" :
Türk, Yunan, Ermeni, İsrail ve Arap Lobilerinin ABD'nin Dış Politikasına Etkileri
By Tayyar Arı
Published by ALFA Basım Yayım Dağıtım 2000
Cağaloğlu, İstanbul - TURKEY


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