Türkçe English  

Unit 11: 
Initiatives for Individuals & Public Speaking

Unit 1:  Who are lobbyists & what motivates them?
Unit 2:  Turkey's image abroad
Unit 3:  History of Turkish communities worldwide & reasons for a weak Turkish lobby.

Unit 4:  National & ethnic interests: Anti-Turkey lobbies, misrepresentation of facts & defamation
Unit 5:  The Turkish lobby dilemma in the United States as a case study.
Unit 6:  Problems encountered by Turkish lobbies in the EU, Germany, France & worldwide.
Unit 7:  Current Turkish lobby issues & the role of public diplomacy.
Unit 8   What can be learned from powerful lobbies such as the Jewish/Pro-Israel lobby?
Unit 9   New approaches to educating & informing Turkish lobbying groups.
Unit 10  Media relations, advertising & professional communications skills.
Unit 11  Initiatives for individuals & public speaking.
Unit 12  Initiatives for communities, campaigns, & NGO'S.
Unit 13: Fund-raising, public relations, & what can be done domestically.
Unit 14: Turkish lobbies undergo a period of transition: The need to strengthen old & new leadership.
Unit 15: Long-term strategies & lobbying in the post-September 11 era.

I. OUTLINE FOR UNIT 11: Initiatives for individuals and public speaking.

    1. The citizen lobbyist.

        a. Face-to-face lobbying.
        b. Letter writing and grassroots.
        c. Relationship building and developing your leadership ability.

    2. Community involvement.

        a. Maximize on the age of the Internet.
        b. Activities for children.

    3. Public speaking: Become a professional speaker and train others.


Plan an exhibition presenting modern-day Turkey and its cultural diversity. Include reproductions and items which are light, inexpensive, and appear professional. How would you find interest and space for this display and provide transportation?
examples: a St. Nicolas exhibition, or Turkic/Timurid Empire presentation (a slide show of Cappadocia, and the ancient civilizations that were located in Turkey is always fascinating).

Find ways to encourage travel to Turkey, and provide information to educators, musicians, doctors, businessmen, religious leaders, entertainers, and others.


What types of events, exhibitions, encounters, or experiences influence your way of thinking and have an impact on you?



Operating as a citizen lobbyist may entail:
Gathering relevant information quickly.
Full-time monitoring of the activities of competing lobbies.
Daily monitoring and reporting on developments.
Research and analyzing legislation & proposals.
Gathering information about the previous positions taken by officials.
Working with coalitions interested in the same issues.
Make tactical decisions.
Persuading legislators.

The importance of personal encounters, and where they may lead in the future, can be conveyed through this story of former presidential candidate Bob Dole, who has shown compassion for Armenia since in 1947. The warm ties that developed between this public official and the Armenian-American community appears to be as a result of a personal tie. The U.S. press has reported that after Dole was recovering from a serious wound he suffered during combat in World War II, an Armenian-American, Hamper Kelikian, was of great assistance to him. Appreciation of Dole's compassion, it has been observed, was evident from the support and contributions he received from voters and fund-raising campaigns.

This section is for the citizen lobbyist. In many instances, the average person who wants to get involved in the lobbying process, doesn't know how, nor what skills are needed. A citizen lobbyist is usually an individual who sets up a meeting with his or her representative in the Congress or parliament, and makes a case in a brief amount of time (this is known as face-to-face lobbying). But there is much more the citizen lobbyist can do. Letter writing campaigns led by citizen lobbyist are very effective. Just as other lobbies have done for decades, the Turkish lobby must inundate legislatures with emails, letters and faxes. There is no excuse not to able to conduct effective letter writing campaigns in this day and age of advanced communications. Citizen lobbyists should develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills. They must learn how to be a good debater and how to communicate their thoughts effectively and simply. In addition, they must be well organized, develop a clear vision, and have a passionate commitment. It is also important to be quick at evaluating situations and adopting appropriate responses.

It is a shame that paid lobbyists in Washington who lobby on behalf of Turkey, and all the PR and advertising firms the Turkish government has worked with over the years, have not armed citizen lobbyists with the facts, methods, and background material needed to lobby for Turkey. Grassroots activities have also failed to attract adequate attention from legislators. Citizen lobbyists don't really know who is making a case on behalf of Turkey. This can cause demoralization and a sense of powerlessness, which in turn weakens a potentially more powerful lobby. This means that YOU, the citizen lobbyist must do the groundwork and educate yourself with the most accurate knowledge. Find out what is being done, and what isn't.

Here are some pointers for an effective lobby visit: Be familiar with the issues you want to discuss and have a persuasive case ready. Take a summary of your position with you. Be prepared to explain why you seek support and how you would like to see this support realized. Be ready to answer any questions, and be ready to respond politely to opposing positions and opinions. Be a good listener. Be tactful and diplomatic. Also be informed about the legislative process and the person's background and previous positions.

In general, to establish initial contact, use an intermediary if possible (such as a friend or relative of the decision-maker) so that a favorable response might result (rather than a formal approach from a total stranger).

Before you discuss your issue:  Try to find out what issues the person needs help understanding so that you can be well prepared.

During your meeting: Begin your meeting by discussing issues that you share common views on. Ask if they have ever heard your point of view, and analyzed the data you have provided them with. Make them accountable for their actions and voting record. Find out what he or she plans or does not plan to do about your issue and why. Be persistent and ask for specifics. Don't allow the person to evade the issue.  If you are not sure about the answer to something, do not answer. A wrong answer ruins your credibility and the chances of placing trust in you. Remember, people do not have as much time for us as we would like, and your time may soon be up. End your meeting on a positive note. By saying you will get back to them, you can develop a relationship. The person you are meeting with should realize that the information you provide is vital for good decision-making.

After your meeting: Provide more relevant information. Share your experience with others. Write a follow up letter with the names of other like-minded people from your community and try to get another date for a meeting as a group (and decide who the spokesperson for the group will be).

Remember, as mentioned earlier, often it is not what you say, but how you say it that is just as important. How you look and you're image count. Understanding image-making involves understanding the psychology of persuasion. It is interesting to note that people seeking election to public office, and their image consultants, are preoccupied with how candidates will appear and look during a debate, as well as what the candidate will say.

Here are some suggestions for an effective letter writing campaign:
Get a lawyer or friend with a legal background to help you present your main points. Not only must you be well-informed, but you must act and work in a professional manner (no badly written emotional letters with bad grammar--this only makes your cause less believable, unless perhaps it is packed with clearly documented information).

One objective for citizen lobbyists is to have monuments erected honoring Turkey
(perhaps in France near monuments which accuse Ottoman Turks of a genocide). Another objective can be to help more people from Turkey find internship positions in political and media organizations. Also Turkish people living abroad can help find hosts and sponsors in Turkey for visiting media representatives, political figures, and other influential people. Arrangements should be made to invite parliamentarians, members of Congress, and their staff to Turkey more frequently.

Citizen lobbyists should also devote time to relationship building in order to share knowledge.  If you are already part of an organization, try to expand your membership by placing advertisements in your local newspaper. Arrange for meetings with educators, travel agents, photo-journalists, school teachers, university presidents, and parent-teacher associations. Try to develop good relations with the media and opinion leaders in your area, and stress the need for intercultural understanding and cooperation. Try to create initiatives and meetings which provide an opportunity for people with different points of view to exchange ideas.

In most countries universities have departments and chairs devoted to Turkish studies. Go visit your public library, as well as school and university libraries.  Check to see if they have sufficient books on Turkey, and if the majority are biased or not (many libraries accept donations, so a majority of the books are sent from wealthy anti-Turkish lobbies). If you find that the educational material is biased, meet with the librarians and ask whether they can correct the problem. Write letters to local newspapers, educational boards, other academic institutions, and centers devoted to the public interest if you find that this is the case in many of the libraries you visit.

Contact think-tanks and other members of the political, economic, or social elite, who can influence the views of others (these people or organizations may tell you they do not have enough time to look into your request, but let them know you have time for them and what you have to say is important, particularly if you are unhappy about their position on certain matters). Write to them and let them know you will be letting others know about their just or unjust position. If you disagree, send them material and supporting evidence so they can try to understand why your views might be right.

Follow your local events calendar and be a part of cultural events in your neighborhood. Make an effort to blend in, rather than appearing insistent about seeking recognition of your ethnic identity, or ethnic perspectives. Give Turkish cooking lessens to your neighbors. Have a closet of Turkish crafts you can lend around the neighborhood. Combine local holidays with Turkish holiday events (such as Turkish youth and sports day) and celebrate both with your neighbors. Be original, how about multicultural karaoke nights with groups of people from different ethnic backgrounds? A Mediterranean night could include Greek, Turkish, and Sephardic songs. If people don't enjoy doing folkdances like they used to, at least show one or two videos. There is so much you can think of and do--just find the inspiration. If you come across an obstacle, try to overcome it, and ask around for advice. Don't use it as an excuse to do nothing, or belittle what you are doing.

Be a part of the information explosion. Benefit from the technological and communication revolution. Use new devices, techniques and innovations. Send out alerts to like-minded people and notify them of opportunities or threats. Learn how to mobilize your resources. Develop your own modern-day strategies and tactics to influence people (but don't be too persistent, and if you don't get responses, perhaps you might be doing something wrong). Keep trying, but keep in mind we may not all have the time required, and what it takes, so find out what your specific strengths are and put your best abilities and knowledge to good use.

Maximize on the age of the Internet. The world is being transformed by the Internet, so be a part of it. Communities are communicating in different ways, and anyone, or any group left behind will have a harder time having their voice heard in the future. The Internet provides for mass mobilization to counterbalance or contain emerging untruths. Although the Internet is not widespread in developing countries, most areas of the world have Internet access. Begin to communicate with the large population of young people in Japan, China, and the Arab-Muslim world to get a taste of being able to interact with people thousands of miles away. Because English has become the most commonly used language on the Internet, it is also a good way for you to develop your language skills. Try to bring out the best in people. With imaginative thinking Turkish youth can be communicating and exchanging ideas with their peers living in areas stretching form Asia to America, from Europe to Africa, and from the tip of South America to the North pole.

Create projects for children (ex: contests, competitions). Give special attention to young people, who might be less exposed to biased opinions. Create dialogue. Use the recent attention Turkey has been receiving as a modern nation of Muslims and help others find out more about Turkey. There are many ways of countering the distorted picture of Turkey. Find areas of common interest and cultural overlaps between the youth of different countries. Find out about important events in their daily life. Tell them about all the changes taking place in Turkey, talk about concerts, films, schoolwork or family vacations. Discover what you have in common. Tell them about famous Turks, sports figures, and about travel to areas near to where you live. Exchange photographs and recipes. Show respect for each other. Explain what Turkish people generally know about that country and ask what else they can learn. You would be surprised to know that your impact will be felt years later when someone says, "I once had a friend from Turkey who..." (even if you never met). For older communicators, discuss travel stories, or stories from Turks who have lived or studied in other countries. Talk about well-known business leaders.


Once you have your statement of facts and supporting material ready, think about enrolling in a public speaking course so that you can give persuasive speeches and be a good debater. You can also train others to become a professional speaker.

Below are suggestions and tips from  http://www.school-for-champions.com/speaking.htm 

Speaking is an important method for communicating knowledge and expressing ideas. It is a primary medium for presenting and selling products and ideas. Being able to verbally communicate effectively to other individuals or to groups is essential in school, business, as well as your personal life. There is need for people who can effectively make presentations and speak to others. Your knowledge and skills in this area can help advance your career or improve your business. Also, if you are good or really enjoy public speaking, you may even choose speaking as a profession. The purpose of these free online lessons is to give you a start at improving your speaking skills, as well as to overcome the fear of speaking to a group.


The public speaker should be knowledgeable in his or her subject matter and skilled in speaking techniques. Your ability to speak effectively is enhanced with knowledge and skill, resulting in greater audience interest. Skillful and knowledgeable speaking also increases your confidence. You gain knowledge through study and skill through application of what you learned.

Questions you may have include:

  • What sort knowledge is needed?
  • What are the benefits to a speaker?
  • How can a public speaker become knowledgeable?

This lesson will try to answer those questions. There is a mini-quiz at the end of the lesson.

Being a knowledgeable speaker means you are well-informed about subject matters and speaking techniques. A speaker who has insufficient knowledge does not know what he or she is talking about and does not know how to make an effective presentation. Being skilled in speaking means you have mastered speaking techniques and are able to deliver a speech in an effective manner.

It is much easier to give a speech if you thoroughly know the subject matter and are skilled in speaking techniques. Lack of knowledge can result in anxiety and embarrassment. The audience responds better to a knowledgeable speaker. A speaker who is skillful in platform techniques will know how to deliver a good speech in various circumstances and be able to adjust to unexpected changes. A skilled speaker can often overcome a lack of knowledge through his or her speaking ability. Confidence, esteem and audience appreciation are some of the rewards from being knowledgeable and skilled.

The way to gain knowledge in your subject matter and speaking techniques is to observe, study and read. Speakers are known to be perceptive observers and readers. There are books and courses on speaking and presentation techniques, as well as those on the various subjects and topics for the speeches. Toastmasters is a good place to learn speaking techniques and to apply them to improve your speaking skills. Professional speakers can join the National Speakers Association to learn speaking techniques from the pros. Applying what you have learned and also analyzing the results of your work are also good ways to establish your skills.

Below are suggestions and tips from www.speechsuccess.com

Many people feel anxious about giving a formal talk or presentation in public.

Why do so many people feel anxious in this situation?

The main reasons appear to be:

* Unfamiliar Situation: because most people speak formally only rarely to an audience the novelty of the situation is a cause of apprehension.

* Lack of Confidence: This stems often from a feeling that others are better speakers than ourselves, or that they know more about the topic in question.

* Sense of Isolation: The speaker is alone, the centre of attraction - and vulnerable.

* Self-Consciousness: about our accents, grammar, voice and image generally.

* Fear of looking Foolish - we may worry that we will forget what we wanted to say, and will stumble over our words, will say the 'wrong' thing, etc.

Another issue that particularly affects students is:

* Fear of the Consequences - for example being 'judged' by others, particularly tutors, as lacking in ability or insight because of a poor public presentation. At least with an essay mistakes can be made in private!

How 'Nerves' affect you Physically

The signs of anxiety are all too painfully familiar to those affected: increased heart and breathing rates, increased adrenaline, over-rapid reactions, and a tension in the shoulder and neck area. These bodily changes can affect the voice, making it sound tremulous, or disjointed by over-rapid breathing.

What can you do about it?

There are five things you can do:

* Relax your Body

Take a deep breath, hold it, then breath out slowly. At the same time try and relax your arms, shoulders and hands - let them go floppy. Repeat this as often as you can before you start to speak.

* Relax your Voice

Loosen up your vocal cords by humming up and down the musical scale or going through vocal sounds: AEIOU.

* Try and 'Defuse' the Situation

Anxiety can be increased if you have to talk to people who appear threatening or intimidating to you in some way. If you are faced with individuals like this imagine them in a ridiculous or deflating position or situation - like sitting on a potty, or with a daffodil growing out of the top of their head!

* Practice!

There is no doubt that gaining experience of Public speaking will certainly help to overcome normal or moderate degrees of apprehension. Deliberately avoiding situations will only make you feel more anxious when you are finally confronted by the situation you dread. Speaking in public is the best antidote to 'nerves'. Easier said than done? Yes, but students can practice on each other in small informal groups, or listen critically to themselves speak on tape.

Another effective way of gaining confidence is to telephone a local live radio phone-in show with your opinion on a current event. Success at putting your views succinctly and clearly over the air waves will give your confidence a real boost!

* Prepare

Above all you must prepare for the session. Much of the fear and apprehension can be considerably lessened by a thorough preparation of the material to be presented, and by organizing your ideas into note form.

As Jack Valenti, speech writer for ex-USA President Lyndon Johnson, said: "The most effective antidote to stage fright and other calamities of speechmaking is total monkish preparation."



Some of the fear experienced when we have to speak in public can be overcome by following the three Ps: Planning, Preparation, Practice. Time spent on these activities means that you are really thinking through the whole process - from what to say, to how to say it. Being prepared is half the battle to overcoming anxiety.


* This involves setting your objectives; considering the purpose of your presentation and the message you are trying to get across to your audience.

* Know your audience: How many will you be speaking to? Why will they be there? What is their prior knowledge? What are their expectations?

* Brainstorm to get your ideas down on paper and then select and order the points you want to make.

* Consider the time you have been allotted and how much you can reasonably say in that time.

Decide how you are going to structure your presentation. Basically you need an introduction, a middle and a conclusion. (This is often referred to as, 'Tell them what you're going to tell them; tell them; then tell them again.')

* The first four minutes are the time when you are likely to have the attention of your audience, it is important to make an impact with your introduction.

* Make your notes: Unless you are reading a speech/paper, your notes should consist of key words and phrases. Just enough to jog your memory and remind you of points you want to make. You can use cue cards, mind maps or ordinary notes on paper depending on your preference, but make them stand out.


* Prepare any visual aids you want to use. These can be transparencies for an overhead projector (OHP), slides, flip chart or black/white board.

* Make sure any equipment you need is available and that you are familiar with it.

* Check your venue and familiarise yourself with it if possible.


* Practice your presentation out loud, either on your own or in front of friends who will give you helpful feedback.

* Use a tape recorder so you can listen to yourself. This will identify: how much you vary the tone of your voice; any points you might want to emphasise; and the amount of enthusiasm you communicate.

* You could practice in front of a mirror to identify any mannerisms or gestures you might want to change. Not everyone advocates doing this, for the simple reason that you will be giving your talk to other people not to yourself.

* Practice smiling. By smiling you are conveying the message that you are pleased to be speaking to your audience. This makes them feel more comfortable, which in turn affects how you relate to your audience.

Below are suggestions and tips from http://www.freenet.edmonton.ab.ca/toast/tips.html 

Public speaking and communication can be enhanced with knowledge of basic principles and etiquette.

Protocol is manners -- observing accepted practices that give recognition to officers, and show proper respect to guests and program participants. Protocol teaches the proper etiquette for recognizing and honoring those in leadership positions. It means honoring the office, regardless of the individual.

Determine the overall purpose. There are many reasons for giving a presentation including: to inform, to educate, to entertain, to inspire, and to convince and persuade. Analyze the audience and the situation. Every audience is different and in order to ensure success you should always consider what your potential audience will be like and what their expectations will be.  Failure to address the needs and level of interest and understanding of an audience can be deadly to a speaker. Consider what the expected attitude of your audience will be (i.e. hostile, friendly, curious or confused).

The best way to prepare yourself and build your confidence is to take the time to write down as many possible questions as you can think of, and then practice answering them prior to the event. To get more ideas of possible questions, you can ask others to pose questions to you and practice answering them.

It is particularly important to practice answering what you consider the most difficult questions. Unless you are dealing with a very hostile audience, most questions are much easier than you anticipate they will be. Try to keep calm, even if your audience is hostile or upset. always respect the questioner, even if you do not like the question or the manner in which it is posed.

How influence on an audience is determined:

·  7% by what we say
  38% by how we speak
  55% by how we look and behave

Appropriate dress indicates:

·  Attention to detail
  Concern about customer reaction
  Good organization
  Better product

Dress in a manner appropriate to:

·  Your speech topic
  Audience expectations
  Your own body

Business Style

Business style is a statement of traditional values

·  suits
  more traditional, classic or tailored lines
  neutral colors such as black, grey, navy, taupe or brown

Dress For Success With Your Audience In Mind

Dress "One Step Above" your expected audience

·  If you are presenting a proposal to a business client, wear a suit or sports jacket/tie for males; suit or jacket and skirt (not slacks) for females
  If you are addressing the Chamber of Commerce at a luncheon, wear a suit, dress it up with a waistcoat, pocket handkerchief or classic jewelry
  If you are an after dinner speaker, wear a tux or dark suit or long dress
  If you are speaking at a community meeting, dress more casually - skirt and sweater set, khaki's and polo neck -- but never, ever jeans!

 Dress to Attract, Not Detract

·  Avoid tight or revealing clothes
  Minimize glitter
  Use color judiciously - add a tie, scarf or a blouse/shirt, if they are worn under a suit jacket
  Avoid strong patterns or prints; go for solid color, especially blue (blue is the best color to wear, it denotes loyalty, commitment and credibility)
  Hats can be distracting
  Wear classic, comfortable pumps rather than spike heels or knee-high boots
  Keep color complimentary to your skin tone, hair and make-up
 Red will excite your audience - good if they agree with your message, disaster if they don't
  Green can be restorative, but tends to be a passive color, difficult to involve your audience

To Enhance Your Message

·  Dress as though this is the interview for your dream job!
  Aim for a smooth, crisp look
  Practice good grooming - hair, nails and shoes
  Stand tall, look confident!  

Dressing Do's and Don'ts for Speakers

·  Have a neat, polished appearance
·  Be sure your clothes are a good fit
  Choose natural fibers as much as possible
  Go to better stores for advice from salespeople
  Ask friends for opinions
  Consult magazines, etc.
·  Whether it is a professional or casual setting, base your standards on the "one step up" rule (one step above your audience)
  Make sure the fit is good, not too tight or too loose
  Pair pants or skirt from a suit with a sweater or blazer in a contrasting color for a more casual look
  One of the best wardrobe investments is a good wool blazer.  Choose a neutral color (navy, grey, brown or beige) and you can team this with just about anything
  Wear pantyhose when wearing a short skirt.  With long skirts, it's probably acceptable to go without during summer months
  Opt for comfortable shoes, but stay away from sneakers and open-toed sandals
  Resist anything that is distracting or revealing
  Stay away from dangly earrings or noisy jewelry
  Keep sweats and jogging suits at the gym
  Save your "personality statement" clothes for your leisure activities

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