Unit 1: Who
are lobbyists & what motivates
Unit 2: Turkey's image abroad.
Unit 3: History of Turkish communities worldwide & reasons for a weak Turkish lobby.
Unit 4: National & ethnic interests:
Anti-Turkey lobbies, misrepresentation of facts & defamation.
Unit 5: The Turkish lobby dilemma in the
United States as a case study.
Unit 6: Problems encountered by Turkish
lobbies in the EU, Germany, France & worldwide.
Unit 7: Current Turkish lobby
issues & the role of public
Unit 8 What can be learned from powerful
lobbies such as the
Unit 9 New approaches to educating &
informing Turkish lobbying groups.
Unit 10 Media relations, advertising & professional communications
Unit 11 Initiatives for individuals & public
Unit 12 Initiatives for
communities, campaigns, &
Unit 13: Fund-raising, public relations, & what can be done domestically.
Unit 14: Turkish lobbies undergo
a period of transition: The need to strengthen old &
Unit 15: Long-term strategies & lobbying in
the post-September 11 era.
I. OUTLINE FOR UNIT 13:
Fund raising, public relations, and what can be done domestically.
1. The need for public relations.
a. Emergence of PR firms in
b. The use of PR firms by
c. The use of PR firms by
the Turkish government.
2. The power of public relations.
a. How PR firms can shape
b. How PR firms can effect
public opinion and public policy.
3. Fund-raising and public relations.
II. EXERCISE, ACTIVITIES & PROJECTS
Create a workshop with an agenda and speakers on different topics.
Think of unique campaigns needed
(speakers on fund-raising, public relations and Turkish
non-governmental organizations to be named).
What makes you admire a country and its people?
Find travel and hotel web sites about Turkey on the Internet. What are their
strengths and weaknesses?
How do you determine what products to buy, what services to use, and
what sources you can trust?
How can more people be involved in PR campaigns that promote Turkey?
IV. BACKGROUND MATERIAL
Individuals in Turkey can create organizations and programs for public
relations efforts that can have an impact abroad. Furthermore, non-governmental
organizations and corporations based in Turkey can provide ideas and offer resources to NGO's
abroad. With some initial support from the private-sector (since it takes
money to raise money), these organizations can do their own fund-raising.
Public relations (PR) is a general term describing the wide
variety of techniques used by corporations, government agencies, institutions,
charitable organizations, political and trade groups, in order to present
themselves in a favorable light to the general public and to specific audiences.
Target audiences can also be the business community, potential customers, the
travel industry, conference and exhibition organizers, legislators, etc. Before
launching public relations campaigns in order to create a hospitable environment, these firms usually undertake research
into public opinion. Public relations specialists frequently are involved in
assisting the formulation of policies and practices that must be communicated to
Public Relations: The practice of creating, promoting, or
maintaining goodwill and a favorable image among the public towards an
institution, country, product, etc. The basic components of public
relations are: counseling management; researching attitudes and behaviors; media
relations; publicity; employee relations; community relations; public affairs;
government affairs; issues management; financial relations; industry relations;
fund-raising; multicultural relations; special events; and marketing
communications. Other terms used for PR: corporate communications, public
affairs, communication, corporate relations, corporate public affairs, corporate
marketing and communications, public information, community relations, or media
The common objectives of these firms is to seek favorable
publicity for the products, services, or personnel of client organizations. The
media is used, particularly newspapers, magazines, television, and radio, as
well as trade and business publications. Public relations firms are often
associated with advertising agencies. Although advertising and PR are two
different disciplines, many advertising agencies promote themselves as
"marketing communications" firms who provide both public relations and
advertising services (note: while advertising agencies pay the media to present
their message, PR firms do not pay for coverage in the media and PR firms
rely on a greater number of communication tools). Other differences between PR
activities and advertising: advertising is addressed to external audiences
(primarily consumers of goods and services), whereas PR directs its message to
specialized external audiences (environmental groups, community leaders,
stockbrokers, etc.) and employees. Advertising is more narrowly focused on
selling goods and services, whereas PR aims to create an environment in which
the organization can thrive. Although marketing and PR may overlap, PR is
distinct from marketing in many ways. In most cases, PR is concerned with
generating good will and building relationships for an organization, in contrast
to marketing which is concerned with customers and selling products and
Lobbies use public relations campaigns in order to inform the
public about their objectives and to create favorable public opinion (or at
least neutral climate of opinion). The extent and methods of publicity depend on
the financial resources of the lobby.
One difference between advertising and public relations
activities is that PR specialists place messages within the editorial context
that are integrated in a unique way so as to inform rather than psychologically
coerce. The company placing the public relations material makes no payment. Nor
does the company control the way in which the material will be used, or whether
it will be used at all. PR therefore functions as a source of information. In
this way, the integrity and independence of the media are not compromised. As
noted in Unit 10, public relations activities have a wide-range of targets and
need to analyze problems and opportunities, whereas advertising targets are
usually more limited.
Turkish lobbies around the world are in need of PR experts who
can generate publicity, and send positive messages about business opportunities,
trade, and tourism. Daily press releases are sent throughout the world by PR
people. Many large corporations operate their own PR departments. Many
anti-Turkish lobbies also use public relations firms in order to shape public
opinion against Turkey. These groups are able to supply negative information on major political
and social issues which finds its way into the media. The material is extremely
professional and expertly written. Leaders of these groups are also able
to appear without charge on many television and radio shows. In less populated
areas, with smaller media (such as local radio stations and weekly newspapers)
making a presentation by these anti-Turkish lobbies (without paying) is even easier.
In the U.S., some critics of lobbying maintain that public relations firms should also be
held more accountable and included in the lobbying registrations.
In addition to press releases, PR firms frequently send ready-for-use videotapes, films, slides,
photographs, CD-ROMs, and DVDs to broadcasting stations. Publishing
and broadcasting media, with small budgets, appreciate the freely offered
contribution of such professionally organized information. Due to recent
technological developments, the rapid exchange of data, images, and information has enhanced
human communication. Those who are best able to use these technologies, are best
able to rapidly provide the information they select to societies around the world.
Thus, succeeding in effectively influencing their audiences.
Civil society organizations in Turkey can work to lobby Europeans,
Americans, and others, if they devise professional methods. For example there
are very few NGO's from Turkey that are registered at the United Nations, where
191 countries are represented. Registered NGO's would be able to lobby on
various issues of concern to Turkey.
In addition, domestic PR programs can encourage Turkish communities abroad to
support and contribute to NGO's aborad. This includes participating in the
political process and in elections in various countries. By becoming more
actively involved, and by participating in civil society abroad, Turkish
communities can better serve as bilateral bridges, and as
a bridge to groups back in Turkey. Business groups who contribute to economic and social well-being
can take a central role in PR campaigns and lobbying. Students and other who
have returned to Turkey after living abroad can also make valuable
contributions. Lobbyists use different types of persuaders, such as Hollywood
stars, famous artists, actors, musicians, entertainers, sportsmen, fashion
designers, and even scholars. Many influential people have traveled to Turkey,
and it is just a matter of capturing their good will and attention. NGO's can also contact
travelers, and friends of Turkey, and seek their participation. Just imagine an
advertisement of only a few seconds, flashing the faces of a few celebrities who
say, "I enjoyed being here in Turkey." These images which would tremendously help
improve Turkey's image could even be produced by the press corps which covers
VIP arrivals in Turkey.
Example: Create a workshop with an agenda and speakers
(information below is from EUCONFERENCES.COM)
20th - 21st September, 2004
Hotel President WTC, Brussels
Why does EU Lobbying concern me?
The European Union (EU) is increasingly important in making decision and
legislation that directly affects industry, civil society and all other
EU stakeholders. The decision-making process in the EU is open and ever
more transparent, allowing those who wish to lobby to gain access.
Despite the openness, the system is complex and notoriously difficult to
navigate without understanding the subtleties of the process. The EU is
in a state of flux, having recently been enlarged, a new term just
beginning (new Commission & Parliament) and the Constitution on the
horizon. Public affairs and lobbying is becoming ever more vital in
representing stakeholder's interests to the EU institutions during these
Despite the importance, many organizations do not to use lobbying as an
effective tool, with many managers believing that it does not concern
them. Yet many organizations find themselves fighting against
legislation that threatens to dramatically affect part of, or their
entire business function. Without the knowledge and skills the learning
curve is very steep and time to prepare effectively is limited. It is
important that organizations are close to the lobbying process rather
than allowing legislation to change their work arena, without their
Who should attend?
EU Lobbying should be understood by all management levels,
political/public affairs staff and legislators from business, trade
associations, NGO's and all others with an involvement in public policy.
This conference is for every organization that is thinking of lobbying,
wishing to lobby more effectively, needing to establish an EU public
affairs strategy or update an existing strategy. If you are already
operating in the EU or considering entering the market, this conference
is for you.
The conference is unique in catering for the variety of lobbying
experience that delegates possess. Delegates are given the option of
attending either a workshop or a presentation and discussion session on
the morning of day 2. The workshop session is aimed at inexperienced
lobbyists, covering basic issues and giving the opportunity to ask
experienced lobbyist's questions. The presentation and discussion is
aimed at those familiar with the lobbying process and will examine the
current issues in lobbying and where lobbying is to progress during the
next term and beyond.
What will I get from this?
EU Conferences have assembled a fine list of speakers from business
associations, industry, NGO's and EU functionaries. This mix of speakers
gives the perspective from both sides of the process: those who lobby
and those who are lobbied, providing great insight as well as creating a
unique forum for debate and discussion.
The speakers will demonstrate the correct approach and highlight the
pitfalls when lobbying. As the conference coincides with the beginning
of the new term of the EU, many of the presentations will look towards
the new term and beyond, highlighting trends and the future developments
for lobbying in the EU. The case study session gives a unique insight
into lobbying campaigns of leading practitioners and aims to identify
NGOs and industry organizations will find this conference useful to
their cause. Industry can learn from NGO's and visa versa. It is a great
opportunity to meet your peers, network and find answers to your