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Unit 7:  Current Issues and the Role of Public Diplomacy

Unit 1:  Who are lobbyists & what motivates them?
Unit 2:  Turkey's image abroad
Unit 3:  History of Turkish communities worldwide & reasons for a weak Turkish lobby.

Unit 4:  National & ethnic interests: Anti-Turkey lobbies, misrepresentation of facts & defamation
Unit 5:  The Turkish lobby dilemma in the United States as a case study.
Unit 6:  Problems encountered by Turkish lobbies in the EU, Germany, France & worldwide.
Unit 7:  Current Turkish lobby issues & the role of public diplomacy.
Unit 8   What can be learned from powerful lobbies such as the Jewish/Pro-Israel lobby?
Unit 9   New approaches to educating & informing Turkish lobbying groups.
Unit 10  Media relations, advertising & professional communications skills.
Unit 11  Initiatives for individuals & public speaking.
Unit 12  Initiatives for communities, campaigns, & NGO'S.
Unit 13: Fund-raising, public relations, & what can be done domestically.
Unit 14: Turkish lobbies undergo a period of transition: The need to strengthen old & new leadership.
Unit 15: Long-term strategies & lobbying in the post-September 11 era.

I. OUTLINE FOR UNIT 7: Current issues and the role of public diplomacy.

    1. History and current affairs.

        a. Review of FORUM topics included in this web site. Understanding the issues.

    2. Better educate yourself, and develop good debating and communication skills.

        a. Addressing controversial issues.
        b. Finding credible and accurate information.

    3. The role of public diplomacy / civilian-military relations.

        a. Propaganda, public diplomacy & the known facts.
        b. Role of civilian-military relations.

II. EXERCISE, ACTIVITIES & PROJECTS ( See History of Orient www.silkroutes.net )

To see issues Turkish lobbies are involved in CLICK HERE

2006 USA-TURKEY Economic & Business Affairs / ATC Conference Topics

2006 USA-TURKEY-ISRAEL Relations  (TURKISH & ENGLISH)  (click here)

Plan a debate or create a panel in order to develop your communication skills.

Visit the web site of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs to learn about Turkish foreign policy issues www.mfa.gov.tr.

Make a list of controversial issues. Then make a list of questions most Turks have difficulty answering. Place the sources for credible information in the appropriate section of the Forum.


Can you define or describe: the Ottoman Milliyet System, the Turkish War of Independence, Hellenism, Enosis, Sevres Treaty, Lausanne Treaty, Montreaux Treaty, territorial waters, Pontus, Dashnak Party, and the history of the Armenian Patriarchate, Greek Orthodox Church, and the Jewish community in Turkey?


So you've made it this far. Now comes the hard part. As discussed in Unit 2, "Turkey's Image Abroad," you will often encounter seemingly very powerful arguments based on distorted historical facts. In order to be informed and have a credible reply, you need to educate yourself and develop good debating skills.

Current issues and concerns (these subjects will be included in the FORUM of this web site):

Your responses to recent media coverage.
Commonly encountered problems of Turks living abroad.
Commonly encountered problems of Turkish lobbies and organizations.
Discuss Turkey's image abroad?
What is most misunderstood about Turkey? Facts that need to be highlighted.
Common anti-Turkish lobbying activities and tactics.
What can Turkey learn from successful lobbies?
How is Turkey viewed from Europe? What are some unique problems?
How is Turkey viewed from the USA? What are some unique problems?
How is Turkey viewed in the Muslim world?
Alleged Armenian genocide allegations.
PKK Terrorism.
International Terrorism.
Clash of civilizations.
The post-September 11 world.
EU-Turkey relations.
Greek-Turkish relations.
Syria, Iran, Russia, and relations with neighboring countries.
Azeri-Armenian-Turkish relations.
Turkish-Israeli relations.
Turkey's relations with elected Hamas leaders & relations with newly elected Israeli government after March 2006.
Israel/Kurdish Jews relations with Northern Iraq.
Maintaining and improving friendship and goodwill between the U.S. & Israel.
Turkey's relations with the Arab-Muslim world.
Turkey's leadership role in the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
Relations with the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Turkic world.
Relations with Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Japan and Southeast Asia.
Chinese-Turkish relations.
What are the threats to Turkey's national interests and security?
Concept of "Moderate Islam."
Concept of  "Euro Islam."
Economic issues related to Turkey.
Headscarf controversy in France & Turkey.
The role of secularism in Turkey.
The role of women in Turkey.
Democracy & Reforms.
Human rights.
Turkey as an example, or so-called "role model?"
Broader Middle East & North Africa Project, Genişletilmiş Ortadoğu ve Kuzey Afrika Projesi (GOKAP)--also referred to as the Greater Middle East Initiative, or Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi, BOP).
Problems in the Aegean and Bosphorus.
Human trafficking and drugs.
Minority and religious rights.
Strategic issues & foreign policy.
Resources, water, energy...
The future of NATO.
Globalization, Supranational forces.
Deteriorating situation in Iraq?
Developments in Northern Iraq?
Tensions between modernity and tradition.
Discuss the units contained in this web site.
Ideas, strategies and new approaches proposed by site visitors and volunteers.
Credible sources of information on current issues of concern.

Share your thoughts and opinions with friends and family so that you develop good debating skills. Create time to think, and look for opportunities to present your views (while taking a train or sitting in a taxi for example). Try to follow news events with a friend and prepare in advance for your discussions. Use different thought provoking techniques to test each other's knowledge. You must devote some time to reading a wide-range of history books and to keeping-up with current affairs.

One of the keys to being an effective communicator is to speak simply in an unemotional, convincing, authoritative manner. You must be able to find the right explanation for the immediate situation, and back up your position with evidence (dates and facts are always impressive). You will no doubt be faced with difficult situations, and unreasonable people, in which case the best approach may be to change the subject. If you both are not certain of the facts, find alternative ways for describing what your views are.  If the person you are debating with is not willing to listen, point out that whatever they are trying to say is undermined by their biased behavior. As a last resort, when dealing with those who are unreasonable, simply deny all they say, and accuse them of something in return.

Unfortunately, anti-Turkish lobbies find new methods to counter Turkish lobbying efforts that seek to disclose truthful information. These lobbies often use disinformation but accuse Turkish lobbies of doing so. They aim not only to shape public opinion in their favor, but also to discredit the Turkish lobby. One example of this is demonstrated by a legal case by an Armenian lobby group that targeted the Turkish Consulate General in France claiming that the consulate was conducting denial propaganda against the so-called Armenian genocide on its web site by targeting the French public. Such accusations aim to make it difficult for Turkish lobbies to present alternative information and educate the public of various countries, especially when the public might be misled by distorted information (if it were not for the efforts of Turkish lobbyists fewer people would be informed about Armenian terrorist activities, which resulted in the deaths of 40 Turkish diplomats and dozens of other victims). Turkish lobbying efforts, and public diplomacy, must therefore be able to stand firm against any accusations of propaganda. The U.S. has been faced with similar accusations of disseminating propaganda (especially due to the prolonged war in Iraq which was based on inaccurate information). Although countries around the world use propaganda, all countries seek to disseminate truthful information so that they remain credible. This is because in order to be persuasive the leadership of any country must be believable. Public diplomacy should therefore be based on fact.  In 1963,  the Director of USIA, Edward R. Murrow, stated in testimony before a U.S. Congressional Committee that: "American traditions and the American ethic require us to be truthful, but the most important reason is that truth is the best propaganda and lies are the worst. To be persuasive we must be believable; to be believable we must be credible; to be credible we must be truthful. It is as simple as that."


In order to understand the important role public diplomacy plays in foreign affairs, in supporting the foreign policies of a country, and in safeguarding and advancing its interests, the methods used by various countries should be studied. Let's examine the United States as an example (the information below has been obtained from the web site of www.publicdiplomacy.org October 16, 2004).

According to Hans N. Tuch, author of Communicating With the World (St. Martin's Press, NY, 1990), public diplomacy is defined as: "Official government efforts to shape the communications environment overseas in which American foreign policy is played out, in order to reduce the degree to which misperceptions and misunderstandings complicate relations between the U.S. and other nations."

Central to public diplomacy is the transnational flow of information and ideas.

When, early in their careers, Anwar Sadat, Valery Giscard d'Estaing, Helmut Schmidt, Raul Alfonsin, and Margaret Thatcher, among many other national leaders, visited the United States under the educational exchange programs of the United States government, U.S. public diplomacy was at work. When Latin Americans viewed a film called The Trip on their local television stations, depicting the dangers of illegal narcotics trafficking to all societies, including their own, they were watching a product made by USIA, the U.S. Government's public diplomacy agency. When U.S. astronauts landed on the moon for the first time, it was the Voice of America, the radio service of USIA, that carried Neil Armstrong's words to millions here on earth. (1)

When a student or a scholar in a developing country conducts research in a U.S. information center in his capital city, he is utilizing one of the popular services provided by U.S. public diplomats in his country. When a newspaper correspondent in a country that has diplomatic relations with the U.S. asks for clarification of a statement allegedly made by a high-ranking U.S. official, he contacts the U.S. Embassy's press attache -- a U.S. public diplomat. When a student or an educator in a foreign country wants to know more about U.S. education in general or a specific college or university program in the U.S., it may be a U.S. public diplomat, or someone on his staff, to whom such a query can best be directed.

When a U.S. performing artist is on a foreign tour sponsored by the U.S. Government, U.S. public diplomats in the cities the artist visits will publicize the tour and make arrangements for his or her performances. When a need is perceived to publish a pamphlet in a particular country or group of countries on a subject of binational interest, U.S. public diplomats may plan such a pamphlet and arrange its publication and distribution. These are but a few of the various activities with which the practitioners of public diplomacy become involved, but they demonstrate the scope and variety of modern public diplomacy.


According to the Planning Group for Integration of USIA into the Dept. of State (June 20, 1997), public diplomacy is defined as follows: "Public Diplomacy seeks to promote the national interest of the United States through understanding, informing and influencing foreign audiences."

The Planning Group distinguished Public Affairs from Public Diplomacy as follows: "Public Affairs is the provision of information to the public, press and other institutions concerning the goals, policies and activities of the U.S. Government. Public affairs seeks to foster understanding of these goals through dialogue with individual citizens and other groups and institutions, and domestic and international media. However, the thrust of public affairs is to inform the domestic audience."

"Public diplomacy" refers to government-sponsored programs intended to inform or influence public opinion in other countries; its chief instruments are publications, motion pictures, cultural exchanges, radio and television." (U.S. Department of State, Dictionary of International Relations Terms, 1987, p. 85)

USIA which was in the business of public diplomacy for more than forty years, defined public diplomacy as follows: Public diplomacy seeks to promote the national interest and the national security of the United States through understanding, informing, and influencing foreign publics and broadening dialogue between American citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad.

"According to a Library of Congress study of U.S. international and cultural programs and activities prepared for the Committee on Foreign Relations of the U.S. Senate, the term 'public diplomacy' was first used in 1965 by Dean Edmund Gullion of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. It was created with the establishment at Fletcher of the Edward R. Murrow Center for Public Diplomacy."

The Murrow Center, in one of its earlier brochures, described public diplomacy as follows: "Public diplomacy . . . deals with the influence of public attitudes on the formation and execution of foreign policies. It encompasses dimensions of international relations beyond traditional diplomacy; the cultivation by governments of public opinion in other countries; the interaction of private groups and interests in one country with those of another; the reporting of foreign affairs and its impact on policy; communication between those whose job is communication, as between diplomats and foreign correspondents; and the processes of inter-cultural communications.

To this day views differ as to whether or not "public diplomacy" and "propaganda" are similar.

Two examples:

a) In 1955, Oren Stephens, author of Facts to a Candid World: America's Overseas Information Program, called such programs (now known as "public diplomacy"), "propaganda." He referred to the Declaration of Independence as being "first and foremost a propaganda tract."
b) In 1961, Wilson Dizard, in the first book to be written specifically about USIA, which was then about eight years old, wrote: The United States has been in the international propaganda business, off and on, for a long time . . . propaganda played a crucial role in the war of independence."

In the years following these earlier views, some U.S. Government officials and others contended that U.S. public diplomacy programs are not propaganda. Others still contend, however, that since propaganda can be based on fact, public diplomacy can be equated with propaganda i.e. ideas, information, or other material disseminated to win people over to a given doctrine. If based on falsehoods and untruths, while still propaganda, it is best described as "disinformation."

USIA officials always contended that their programs dealt with the known facts; to do otherwise would be counterproductive as their reliability would be questioned.

Public diplomacy differs from traditional diplomacy in that public diplomacy deals not only with governments but primarily with non-governmental individuals and organizations. Furthermore, public diplomacy activities often present many differing views as represented by private American individuals and organizations in addition to official U.S. Government views. Traditional diplomacy actively engages one government with another government. In traditional diplomacy, U.S. Embassy officials represent the U.S. Government in a host country primarily by maintaining relations and conducting official USG business with the officials of the host government whereas public diplomacy primarily engages many diverse non-government elements of a society.

The basic tools used in public diplomacy activities and programs are generally classified under the rubrics of "Information" and "Cultural and Educational Exchange" programs. The above classifications are for convenience. The content of either is often more informational than cultural and vice versa.

With the tremendous advances in communication technology in recent years, the above traditional designations have been greatly affected by today's instant global communications as well as numerous other technological advances. As a result, public diplomacy activities now include Web sites on the Internet, CD ROMs, e-mail, teleconference programs, and other marvels of the late Twentieth Century communications revolution.

Information activities:
-- "Wireless File."
Traditionally called the "wireless file" because it was orignally sent and received by radio, today it is called "The Washington File" and received at U.S. embassies on computer terminals where it arrives via satellite, cable, microwave, land line, or a combination of these. Contents of the file include such things as full texts of official statements and speeches by U.S. officials; transcripts of press conferences and briefings by The White House, State Department, and other U.S. Government agencies as well as special features and interpretive articles.
-- Speakers and Specialists.
Americans representing government, business, academia, media, and community organizations conduct short-term speaking programs under State Department auspices. Most are independent academics and professionals who present their personal views and experiences.
-- Professionals-in-Residence.
Professional specialists in such fields as law, business, public administration, and the media spend from two weeks to several months in a country serving as advisors to non-academic institutions.
-- Teleconference Programs.
Through the combination of advanced technology and the telephone, speakers unable to travel are linked with audiences overseas through either voice or voice-and-video communications.
-- Publications and Electronic Media.
A broad range of booklets, pamphlets, brochures, and other special publications, often in multiple language editions, formerly published by USIA for distribution by USIS posts, embassies and cultural centers overseas, will now be a part of State Department programs.
-- Foreign Press Centers.
Foreign Press Centers established by USIA in Washington, New York, and Los Angeles provide a variety of services to more than 1,600 resident foreign journalists, along with thousands more who visit the U.S. each year on short-term assignments.
-- Books and Information Resource Centers.
Information Resource Centers formerly maintained by USIA and now by the Department of State, exist in many countries. Library programs in many binational cultural centers also receive support. Book programs include the translation and production of selected titles by foreign publishers. By underwriting a portion of the production costs, translated copies not only enter foreign commercial markets but copies become available for Information Resource Centers and binational center libraries, and for presentation to selected individuals and institutions
-- International Radio and Television Program.

Education and cultural exchanges:
-- The Fulbright Program of student, teacher, and scholar exchanges.
-- Academic Exchanges.
-- Study of the United States. By helping to establish and maintain quality U.S. studies programs in foreign universities and secondary schools, this program promotes better understanding of the United States.
-- English Teaching.
-- International Visitors. The I.V. program brings people to the U.S. for three-to-four week visits to meet and confer with professional counterparts and to experience firsthand the United States and its institutions.
-- Citizen Exchanges. This program develops international exchange grant projects with American non-profit institutions, including voluntary community organizations, professional associations, and universities.
-- Program for Building Democratic Institutions. USIA developed a variety of programs to help emerging democracies worldwide build institutions that support democratic reform. They emphasize hands-on training and the development of professional contacts.
-- Performing and Visual Arts. Under this program, the vitality, diversity and excellence of American performing and visual arts are presented to audiences overseas.

International broadcasting:
International broadcasting, which traditionally was included under the rubric of Information Activities when discussing public diplomacy programs, merits a separate section. It is an overseas program that goes directly to its audience rather than via an embassy. The U.S. Government's international broadcasting entered a new era when Congress passed the International Broadcasting Act of 1994 (Public Law 103-236). This legislation established the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) within USIA and set in motion the consolidation of all U.S. Government international broadcasting--federally funded and grantee alike. All such broadcasts are now overseen by the Bureau's Board of Governors. On October 1, 1999, the IBB became an independent agency.

--Voice of America.
As the U.S. Government's international radio service, the VOA provides news and information in dozens of languages to an estimated ninety million listeners worldwide. Accuracy and objectivity are sought as mandated by the VOA Charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415). VOA's "Affiliate" Broadcasters. Besides direct broadcasts, VOA relies on "affiliate" radio stations throughout the world to expand its listening audience. It provides programming by satellite, prerecorded tape, or phone "feed" to over 1,000 "affiliates" worldwide.  Worldwide Television and Film Service. Television, including WORLDNET, a global television network which first telecast to other countries via satellite Nov. 3, 1983, is under the operational jurisdiction of the VOA. WORLDNET presents U.S. perspectives on important domestic and international events; explains U.S. Government policies to a global audience; and transmits a visual image of American culture, history, and scientific and technological achievements. In addition, the VOA produces television versions of some of its radio programs.
--Radio Marti and TV Marti.
Radio Marti broadcast its first program May 20, 1985, as authorized by the Broadcasting to Cuba Act of 1983 (Public Law 98-111). TV Marti transmitted its first program on March 27, 1990. Directed toward Cuban audiences, both must follow VOA standards of objectivity, accuracy, and balance in accordance with the legislation which created these stations.
--Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a nonprofit, private corporation that broadcasts domestic news and information to Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. It receives funding from IBB's Board of Governors. Its headquarters is in Washington, D.C., and its broadcast center is in Prague, Czech Republic. RFE/RL is a leading means of Western communication to newly independent nations in a difficult transition to democracy and free market economies.
--Radio Free Asia.
Radio Free Asia also receives grants from the Board of Governors. It is a private, non-profit corporation that broadcasts domestic news and information in seven languages to listeners who do not have access to full and free news media.
RFA seeks to promote the rights of freedom of opinion and expression -- including freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any medium regardless of frontiers. RFA broadcasts daily via shortwave to China, Tibet, Burma, Vietnam, North Korea, and Cambodia in Mandarin, Tibetan, Burmese, Vietnamese, Korean, Lao and Khmer. The broadcasts originate from RFA Washington, DC, incorporating reports from correspondents and participants throughout Asia.
--Radio Sawa.
Radio Sawa ("Sawa" means "together" in Arabic) is a service of U.S. International Broadcasting aimed at listeners under 30, operated and funded by the Broadcasting Board of Governors. One of the guiding principles of Radio Sawa is that the long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly in Arabic with the peoples of the Middle East by radio. Radio Sawa began broadcasting in March 2002 and is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week on FM frequencies throughout the Middle East. Radio Sawa is also available via Nilesat, Arabsat, and Eutelsat.

State Department's Community Connections Program Information:
The Community Connections Program brings competitively selected professionals from Eurasia to the U.S. for internships in local American communities and businesses and organizations. The goals of this program are to: expose participants to a democratic free-market society; encourage both the implementation of change and the building of public-private partnerships in their home countries; and to create linkages between the host community and the participants' home community. Many participants, after exposure to the United States, assess its institutions more positively. Alumni attitudes toward the rule of law, freedom of speech, democracy, and a market economy all improved as a result of the program (46%, 43%, 48%, and 62%, respectively). Alumni attitudes toward key U.S. social institutions and values, including ethnic diversity, religious institutions, volunteer organizations, and the role of the individual in society all improved (55%, 49%, 65%, and 51%, respectively.)

Community Connections had a positive effect on participants' firms or careers. One half of the alumni reported that the fiscal health of their firms had improved as a direct result of the contacts or information gained in the program. Among those not heading firms or organizations at the time of the exchange, 62% said their employment status had improved, 25% said the nature and scope of their work had expanded, and 24% were working more hours. 98% agreed that supervisors should adopt a more democratic management style-taking the opinions of their subordinates into account when making decisions. Participants are inspired to implement change in their home countries. Alumni have a continuing and positive impact on their home communities via workshops, seminars, medical clinics, free legal services, new schools and parent-teacher organizations, centers for public policy, and other innovations. Alumni trace these contributions to skills or knowledge acquired in the United States.

    (1) On October 1, 1999, the United States Information Agency was abolished. The new "Office of Information Programs" in the Department of State assumed responsibility for almost all overseas information programs, including the creation and maintenance of USIA's International Home Page on the Internet. The newly created Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs now administers most international exchange programs, including the Fulbright program. Most of USIA's operations abroad will continue, albeit under different names in most cases.

USIA's broadcasting elements -- Voice of America radio, the non-interactive programs of World television, and Radio Marti and Radio Marti TV, have been placed with other U.S. Government broadcasting services in the International Broadcasting Bureau, an independent government entity. USIA's Foreign Press Centers operation has moved to the State Department's Bureau of Public Affairs, and its Office of Research and Media Reaction has moved to State's Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

The reorganization was carried out in accordance with the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998, which also called for the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and some functions of the Agency for International Development to be integrated into the State Department.

Distinction between public affairs and public diplomacy:

On April 18, 1997, the White House announced reorganization of the foreign affairs agencies. Task forces, composed of representatives of each agency affected and union representatives, worked on the issues involved in the plan to consolidate USIA and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) with the Department of State. The Agency for International Development would remain intact but its director (Administrator) would report to the Secretary of State.

In the summer of 1997 the task forces submitted their recommendations. By October 1, 1997, the reports were awaiting review by the Secretary of State. After the Secretary's approval, recommendations were to be sent to the White House for presidential approval.

Among the issues raised during the deliberations of the task force on public diplomacy was the distinction between public affairs and public diplomacy. As the members of this task force apparently could not reach agreement on this issue, they presented two options:

Option 1 would create an Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, with oversight over two bureaus: Educational/Cultural Affairs and Public Affairs. Option 2 would create an Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy. He or she would oversee exchanges, international visitor programs, the current "I" Bureau of USIA (global media operations--which would remain intact), and strategic communications. Public Affairs would remain separate and distinct under this recommended option.

On November 13, 1997, the House of Representatives leadership stripped from the Foreign Operations spending bill a provision which would have authorized the reorganization of foreign policy agencies, including USIA. After nearly a year in limbo, Congressional authorization, required for the reorganization to take place, finally was given.

On October 21, 1998, President Clinton signed the massive omnibus spending bill for the U.S. Government's new fiscal year. It included legislation abolishing USIA and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, merging both within the Department of State, effective October 1, 1999 for USIA. At that time the position of Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs was established. Evelyn S. Lieberman became the first person to fill that position.

The Bureau of Broadcasting, which includes the Voice of America and Radio Marti, operates television activities such as WORLDNET, and provides grants to Radio Liberty/Radio Free Europe and Radio Free Asia, became a separate agency. For further details see the pertinent sections in the web sites to which this site is linked.

Commission Report on the Consolidation:

The United States Advisory Commission On Public Diplomacy issued a report in October, 2000, entitled
Consolidation of USIA Into The State Department: An Assessment After One Year. The Executive Summary of this report states:  

"The U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy finds that the consolidation of the United States Information Agency (USIA) in the State Department has to date produced a mixed record. For former USIA employees, the transition has meant a very difficult adjustment; while moving to the State Department has afforded former USIA employees unprecedented career opportunities, it has also required them to conform to the procedures of a Department that is overly centralized and hierarchical. The Commission finds the morale among the Department's "new" employees is worringly low, but morale is a major problem throughout the entire Department, not just among former USIA employees.

"Although USIA personnel have gone through a very difficult transition, the programs they administer have been affected to a lesser degree. Fortunately, exchanges continue apace, as do information and speaker programs and other public diplomacy activities, although implementation has become more cumbersome under the State Department. Credit for this, the Commission believes, goes to the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs for her work in raising the profile of public diplomacy in the Department and tireless pursuing the goal of integration. Of course, without the dedication and effort of the Department's public diplomacy officers--those in Washington and abroad as well as those State officers who have worked on the transition, success would never be possible. Despite their efforts, it will take several years before public diplomacy becomes an accepted "cone" in the Department and is recognized for the value it brings to U.S. foreign policy goals and objectives.

"When consolidation was first proposed in 1997, its supporters in Congress expected it to be accompanied by a reinvention of the way the United States conducts and carries out its foreign affairs. Consolidation was launched last October, though much remains to be done to smooth the transition from USIA into State. The Commission looks forward to the day when real reinvention will follow."

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